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The Annals of an Inland Parish. 



Frontispiece by JAMES PATERSON, R.S.A. 


Sbe flbemorg of 


Who early instilled into me a love of Glencairn 
and all that concerns its history, this volume is 
affectionately dedicated. 

" If I had my way I would have, as part of the 
teaching in every country school, a little book giving 
the story of the parish, mentioning the main changes, 
any historical facts connected with it, and the names of 
any distinguished natives. The people in our country 
parishes know nothing of the local history, and it is 
not good that they should be ignorant." 

British Weekly. 


IN the following pages I have attempted to sketch briefly the 
history of Glencairn from the earliest times. During 
recent years, and especially since the advent of the rail- 
way, enquiries for such a book have been frequent. It is true 
that an excellent little history of the parish was published in 
1876 by the late Rev. John Monteith, but the book has long been 
out of print, and it is now difficult to procure copies even at a 
premium. In these circumstances I have attempted a task that 
I would willingly have left for abler hands to overtake. 

I am free to confess that a considerable impetus to the 
writing of the history was imparted by the discovery of two 
Church Treasurer's Books in MS. containing much curious 
information illustrative of the social and religious life of the 
parish about the close of the eighteenth, and the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. Some of the items, it seemed to me, 
were of more than merely local interest, and through the cour- 
tesy of Glencairn Kirk- Session I have now the privilege of 
making the contents of the little volumes, together with other 
extracts from the Records, generally accessible. 

To the Rev. R. G. Philip, M.A., United Free Church 
Manse, Glencairn, and to Mr G. W. Shirley, Librarian, Ewart 
Public Library, Dumfries, my thanks are gratefully offered for 
much valuable assistance and advice. In dealing with the 
Place-names many helpful suggestions have been received from 
the Rev. James B. Johnston, B.D., Falkirk, and Mr George 
Macdonald, Station House, Moniaive. Mr James Paterson, 
R.S.A., has conferred a signal honour upon my book by his 
picture of "Glencairn," which has been so beautifully repro- 
duced in photogravure by Messrs T. & R. Annan & Co., of 
Glasgow. My acknowledgments are likewise due to the Rev. 

viii. PREFACE. 

Sir Emilius Laurie, Bart, of Maxwelton, for permission to repro- 
duce the valuable and interesting paintings of Mr Alexander 
Fergusson and " Bonnie Annie Laurie " ; to Mr William 
Macmath, Edinburgh, for the picture of Moniaive in 1790; to 
Messrs Valentine & Sons, Dundee, for two of the photographs; 
and to Messrs J. Maxwell & Son, Dumfries, for the drawing of 
the Craigdarroch Whistle. 

I desire to express my thanks also to a number of other 
friends svho, although not expressly named here, have none the 
less helped to make my work more complete. 

Notwithstanding the limitations and imperfections of the 
book, I venture to hope that it will be received as a not unworthy 
contribution to the history of a parish that has long been famous 
alike for its natural beauty and for its rich historic interest. 

J. C. 


December, 1910. 



PREFACE .. ... ... vii. 


Origin of Name Extent of Parish Hills Streams 
Valleys Mineral springs Geological formationWoods 
Font's Map Distribution of population about 1610 
General description The Glens in Borland Hall ... 1 


Traces of occupancy Importance of Place-names as an 
index of early conditions The more interesting Place- 
names with their probable meanings 10 


Animal remains Stone implements and weapons 
Crannog and Earthwork at Loch Urr Camps Motes 
Other defensive works Cairns and burial mounds 
Portable relics ... 18 


(1) Ancient (2) Modern. 


Saint Cuthbert Site of Saint Cuthbert's Chapel First 
mention of Glencairn The Knights Templars Pre- 
Reformation Clergy in Glencairn Religious condition 
of the people Shrines and pilgrimages Visit of James 
IV. to Glencairn on his way to the Shrine of Whithorn 
Dawn of the Reformation ... ... ... ... 38 


Parish Ministers subsequent to the Reformation Old 
Parish Church of Glencairn The Churchyard The 
present Church The United Presbyterian Church and 
its Ministers The Free Church of Scotland and its 
Ministers The United Free Church of Scotland ... 44 



Origin of Covenanting Struggle Ejected Ministers 
The Rising at Dairy Turner brought a prisoner from 
Dumfries by way of Glencairn Rullion Green Claver- 
house in the South of Scotland Glencairn martyrs 
James Renwick Other Glencairn martyrs and sufferers 
The Revolution ... ... ... ... ... 54 


Far-reaching duties of the Kirk-Session Curious ex- 
tracts from Records, 1G93 onwards Quaint and interest- 
ing details from Church Treasurer's Books, 1783-98 
and 1808-19, as to (1) Collections ; (2) Fines, proclama- 
tions, &c. ; (3) Interest on loans, &c. ; (4) Expenditure : 
Care of the poor ... ... ... ... ... ... 72 


John Knox and Education Number and distribution 
of Schools in Glencairn The Education Act of 1872 
The Grierson Glencairn Bursary Schoolmasters from 
1694 83 


Important part played by the men of Glencairn in first 
Rebellion The march to Stirling Garrison duty under 
Lieut.-Col. Blackader Collapse of first Rebellion The 
Rebellion of 1745 Local measures of defence Action 
by the Presbytery Fine of 2000 exacted from the 
county town Handsome contributions from Sir Robert 
Laurie of Maxwelton and others Close of the Rebellion 92 


The Fergusson Family The Cuningtafn Family The 
Laurie Family The Gibson Family -other Families ... 100 


James Renwick Robert Cutlar Fergusson " Bonnie 
Annie Laurie" Lieut.-Col. Blackader James Fisher 
Alexander Clerk Rev. Robert Gordon, D.D. 
William Bennet Rev. John Inglis, D.D. Rev. William 
France Rev. Alexander Grierson, A.M. John Hyslop 


Walter Paton, J.P., D.L. John Dalziel Rev. Alex- 
ander Todd Robert Mackill References to Col. Sir 
George G. Walker, and others 112 


The Poet's visits as an exciseman " The Whistle " 
"Willie brewed a peck o' maut" A Glencairn subject 
for a projected drama, Rob Macque.chan's Elshon 
Legend of King Robert the Bruce and Dalwhat 
" Address to the Deil " " Lament for James, Earl of 
Glencairn" 127 


Agriculture the principal industry Primitive methods of 
cultivation about 1800 Impetus given to improvement 
by Highland and Agricultural Society The growing of 
flax, and its manufacture Lint wells and lint mills 
The droving of cattle Minor industries : Muslin em- 
broidery or " Flowering "Hand-knitting Weaving 
Coopering Thatching Basket-making Candle-mak - 
ing Nail-making Modern Agriculture Favourite 
breeds of sheep and cattle Staple crops Modes of 
husbandry Leases Wages Improved condition of 
workers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 132 

Social condition of the people Houses Furniture 
Dress Food Light Fuel Amusements, Customs, 
and Beliefs Proverbs and sayings ... ... ... 141 


Situation of the village Meaning of name Erection 
into a free Burgh of Barony Copy of Charter dated 
1636 Translation of Charter Moniaive in 1790 
Changes in the name Streets, and their changes 
Bridges Roadways The " Craigengillan Coach " Im- 
pressions of Lord Cockburn Story of Lord Brougham 
Other famous visitors and residents Village worthies 148 


Aspect of Glencairn to-day Improvements in Housing 


Lighting Water supply, &c. Rural depopulation 
Decrease in Glencairn, and its causes Rental of Parish 
Parish Council Libraries Ploughing Society Horti- 
cultural Society Lodge of Oddfellows Recreative 
Clubs Other institutions The Post Office The Cairn 
Valley Railway The Outlook 169 


A. The Vertebrate Fauna of Glencairn 179 

B. Flora, with List of finest Trees 186 

C. Bibliography 197 

INDEX.., ... ... . 215 


Glencairn From a painting by James Paterson, 

R.S.A Frontispiece. 

Map of Parish ... ... ... ... ... ...Facing 1 

Stone Hammers 18 

Tripod Ewer 30 

Church Tokens 48 and 50 

Martyr Stones in Glencairn Churchyard ... ... ... 60 

Alexander Fergusson of Craigdarroch and Anna 

Laurie ("Bonnie Annie Laurie") ... .. Facing 106 

The Craigdarroch Whistle 128 

" Carle " Candlestick, 19th century 147 

Moniaive in 1790 ... ... ... ... ...Facing 156 

The Jougs from Moniaive Cross ... ... ... ... 168 

Moniaive from Dunreggan Hill ... ... ... Facing 169 


THE name Glencairn Celtic, Gleann-carn, glen of the cairn 
or heap of stones may almost be regarded as explain- 
ing itself. Where the cairn that gave the parish its 
name was situated is no longer known with certainty. Large 
cairns formerly existed at Auchencheyne, at Crawfordton, and 
at Waulkmill, near Moniaive, but practically all traces of these 
have now disappeared. When the Waulkmill cairn was de- 
molished, an urn of the usual cinerary type was found in the 
interior. So far as we are aware, not even a fragment of this 
interesting relic can be traced, but the known discovery of such 
an object is valuable, for it lends probability to the assumption 
that the large and important cairn at Waulkmill was the source 
from which the parish derived its name. 

Glencairn lies on the western border of Dumfriesshire, close 
to the high mountain range that forms a natural boundary 
between that county and Kirkcudbrightshire. It is bounded on 
the north by the parish of Tynron, on the east by Keir, on the 
south by Dunscore and Balmaclellan, and on the west by Dairy. 

The extreme length of the parish is* fourteen and a half 
miles, and its greatest breadth a little more than five miles. 
The superficial area, according to information courteously 
furnished by the Director-General of the Ordnance Surveys, is 
30,239-050 acres. Of this, by far the larger portion is pastoral, 
only about one-fifth being arable. The hills, with the exception 
of a somewhat rugged heath-clad range that stretches along 
the southern border, and forms a congenial haunt of the red 
grouse, are green and undulating. Owing probably to their 
bleached appearance in winter these grassy slopes are dis- 


tinguished locally by the name "white ground." In the north 
and north-west especially, considerable altitudes are attained. 
Thus, Colt Hill in the north-west is 1961 feet, and Benbrack 
in the west 1900 feet. Bogrie on the south rises to 1416 feet, 
and Lagganpark on the east to 1171 feet. From all these 
eminences extensive and pleasing prospects are obtained. 

The main valley is traversed by the river Cairn. This 
stream is formed out of three hill streams, named respectively 
the Dalwhat Water, the Craigdarroch Water, and the Castle- 
fairn Water, which unite a short distance below the village 
of Moniaive. All these streams as well as the Cairn itself 
are well-stocked with trout, and afford good sport to the 
angler. The valley of the Cairn, although not wide, is highly 
fertile. Rich grass and corn lands border on the river, and 
extend far up the hillsides. Commodious farmhouses and tidy 
cottages peep out on every side, while here and there a stately 
mansion, embowered amid sheltering woods, imparts dignity to 
the scene. 

The narrower glens that open at the head of the main 
valley are all beautiful. It is a beauty, however, that requires 
to be sought. The mere passer-by would never suspect the 
wealth of loveliness that lies hidden away amid these pastoral 
solitudes. He who would enjoy their charm to the full must take 
the stream for his guide and follow it in all its windings to the 
f^ntain-head far up among the hills. If this be done, we can 
promise him a feast of beauty that will linger long in the 

It is in this portion of the parish that the finest sheep-walks 
are to be found. The hills, even when they attain altitudes of 
between one and two thousand feet, are green from base to 
summit, and it is on these sloping pasture lands that the Black- 
face and Cheviot sheep, for which the district is famous, are 
reared. During the earlier portion of last century large numbers 
of black cattle were bred on the same hills to supply the English 


meat markets, but as the trade was proving unprofitable they 
were supplanted by sheep, which have since maintained their 

Mineral springs of some local repute occur at several points 
in the parish, notably, near the sources of the Glenjaan and 
Dibbin burns, at Old Crawfordton, and at Billhead in the 
neighbourhood of Moniaive. The Rev. Peter Rae, minister of 
Kirkbride (1703-27) and of Kirkconnel (1732-48), writing of the 
Old Crawfordton well, says: "There is a physick well on 
Crawfordton, about half-a-mile from that place, found to be 
good for several diseases, as for pains in the stomach, heart- 
burn, &c." (Rae MS.} 

The climate is moist but salubrious. Geologically, the 
parish is composed almost entirely of Silurian strata. Fossils 
have been obtained in considerable numbers from certain bands 
of black shales, and by means of these it has been found 
possible to demonstrate the true order of succession of the beds. 1 
Traces of glacial action, in the form of striated rock surfaces and 
boulder clay, abound. Moraine heaps are likewise numerous 
along the sides of the valleys. No traces of coal have been found 
in the parish, although the black shales, already referred to, 
would seem to have been mistaken for members of the Carboni- 
ferous system. Thus, the Rev. William Grierson, when writing 
his account of the parish about 1792, says: "Trials for coal 
have been made in several places .... with a go^ 
prospect of success." Time, however, has shown the "good 
prospect " to be wholly illusory. 

About a mile to the north of Moniaive there is a curious 
artificial excavation known as " Caitloch Cave." It is supposed 
to have been made in search of lead, but no record of the opera- 
tions has come down to us. The presence of " jumper " marks 

1. See Geology of Dumfriesshire, by Messrs Peach & Home, in 
The Flora of Dumfriesshire, by G. F. Scott-Elliot, M.A., F.L.S., 
F.R.G.S., pp. xxvii. to xxx vi, 


proves that it belongs to a period subsequent to the date when 
gunpowder was introduced for blasting purposes. As it was 
not till the beginning of the seventeenth century that any very 
active measures were taken to encourage the search for useful 
minerals, the excavation probably belongs to some part of that 
century. To-day the cave is chiefly famous as a reputed hiding- 
place of the Covenanters. It measures one hundred and four- 
teen feet in length, and opens on the Dalwhat stream, at a point 
of great natural beauty, about a quarter of a mile to the east of 
the mansion-house of Caitloch. When nearly opposite Caitloch 
the Dalwhat Glen contracts into a narrow gorge, and as the 
water frets and fumes in its rocky channel between banks 
clothed with natural wood and a profusion of ferns, the scene is 
one of remarkable beauty, and might well engage the brush of 
the painter or the pen of the poet. 

The parish is well wooded. Even in the seventeenth 
century, when many parts of Scotland had been all but denuded 
of trees, Glencairn would seem to have retained considerable 
portions of its early forests. Thus, in Timothy Font's Map of 
Nythesdail, supposed to have been completed between 1600 
and 1610, although not published for nearly half a century 
later, woods are represented as occurring to the north and west 
and likewise to the south-east of " Dunrago " (Dunreggan). 
Since Font's day large portions of waste or of semi-waste lands 
Ifcve been planted, and at the present time Glencairn is one of 
the most richly wooded parishes in the south of Scotland. 
Many of the individual trees are of large growth, and as a 
record of these may possess both a present and a future interest, 
a tabular list of the more notable trees, with their dimensions, 
has been printed as an addendum to the Flora. (See Appendix 

Font's map is not only valuable as a guide to the sylvicul- 
tural condition of the parish during the first decade of the seven- 
teenth century; it also affords us almost the only reliable in- 


formation we possess regarding the distribution of the popula- 
tion. Altogether fifty-nine names of places in the parish are 
given by Pont, and the most of them, notwithstanding changes 
in spelling, can still be recognised without difficulty. As the 
names themselves are of interest, we append the full list, 
arranged, for convenience of reference, according to the natural 
divisions of the parish : 

1. MAIN VALLEY Dunrago, Burnfoot, Mill, Hill, English- 

toun, Blackston, Larburgh, Castlehills, Peiltoun, Glen- 
kairn K., Shancastel, Maxweltoun, Glenkairn Cast., 
Mains, Krafurd, Consford, Dardarroch. 

2. DALWHAT GLEN Bardonoch, Barbuy, Bardannoch Mill, 

Lagdaw, Kaitloch, N. Kaitloch, Tarrans, Dalwhat, 
Schatheir, Drumlof, Marwhurn, Benbuy, Blarick, Kon- 
rick, N. Dupein, O. Dupein, Marktowyr, Scklait, Korbe 
Glenjan, Kordow. 

3. CRAIGDARROCH GLEN Xrichon, Dungelstoun, Kraig- 

darroch, Celdsyd, Ballundny, Nise, Knokachle, Kraig- 
lenan, N. Stronshelach, Auchenstrowan, O. Stronshelach, 
Loshiningland, Chapelmark, O. Kraigleiran. 

4. CASTLEFAIRN GLEN Halfmarck, Kirkowbrik, Bortom, 

Linarklat, Glencroish, Kraignesta, Hil of Threerigs, 

A curious and yet on the whole exact description of Glen- 
cairn, from an account drawn up by the Rev. William Black, 
A.M., minister of Closeburn 1647-84, is contained in the Sibbald 
MSS. (Advocates' Library, Edinburgh). 

" This parish is large and lyeth on both sides of a little 
river called Kairn, whence it hath its denomination, which 
runneth from 3 several fountains in Galloway, the first on the 
south side called Castlefairn Water, the second in the middle 
called Craigdaroch Water, upon the brink of which stands the 
House of Craigdarroch Fergusson : the third rivulet on the north 
side is called Dowhat Water where stands the dwelling place of 


a linage of the name of M'Gachen descended of one M'Gachen, 
a private standart-bearer in the Bruces Wars, and doth yet 
continue in the name. These 3 rivulets having run each of 
them severall miles do all three meet in one water at Moniaive, 1 
a Burgh of Barony having a useful weekly mercat and some 
fairs. These three rivulets conjoined make the River Kairn. 
The parish by the running of the water running six miles down- 
wards is divided into two parts, one in each side, and thereafter 
running on the east part of it, it divides Glenkairn from Din- 
score, and thereafter running by the parish of Holywood, it 
divides Nidsdale from Galloway and continueth its course by the 
parishes of Irongray and Teregglis, in Galloway, till it come to 
the Col ledge of Lincluden, where it falls in with Nith. 

" A little beneath Moniaive in this parish stands the Church 
of Glencarne, situate at the foot of a high hill called the Dune 
of Shankcastle, near to which also stands the Castle of Glen- 
carne, anciently the dwelling place of the noble family of the 
Cunigham's, Earles of Glencarne, who being superiour to the 
whole parish, excepting a barony or two, did divide the pro- 
perty amongst his Jackmen for the greater part of it, into several 
tenements bearing the name of the first occupants, which 
denominations, though the lands now be possessed by those of 
other names, yet they do still retain as at first as Blackstown, 
Stewartown, Gilmorestown, Gordonstown, Garrickstown, and 
some others more, and it is probable that other places had the 
like denomination, though now changed. At the Disposition of 
the Superiority of this Parish, the Earle of Glencarne did 
reserve the superiority of one room called Nether Kirkcud- 
bright, which he yet retains, and at the Disposition of his own 

1. In a map of the shire of Dumfries or Nithsdale by H. Moll, 
Geographer, dated 1725, the Craigdarroch and Dalwhat streams 
(the latter prematurely wearing the name of "Kairn") are shown 
as uniting near " Burnfoot," while the " C. Fairne " runs apart 
until nearly opposite " Glencairn," or Kirkland. 


property a little know near the Castle of Glencarne, which 
castle with a considerable part of the parish doth now pertain 
to Robert Laurie of Maxweltoun Baron of Straith, which makes 
him capable of electing and being elected a Commissioner for 
the Parliament." 

Further references to the topography of Glencairn will be 
found in Camden's Britannia, Chalmers's Caledonia, Sir John 
Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland, and the New Statistical 
Account of Scotland. The following idealised description of the 
parish is from the late Rev. Dr Walter C. Smith's poem of 
Borland Hall, published in 1874 : 

" As you come over the hill, a little way down, the road 
Suddenly sweeps to the right, and lo ! a green valley and broad ; 
Through it a river runs swift, its water broken by rocks 
And boulders, cleaving its way as by rapidest bounds and 

shocks ; 

Now with a clear rush on, and now recoiling again 
To wheel round the barrier huge it has hammered for ages in 


Only dinting deep holes in its ribs, and chafing itself into foam, 
Then swirling away to the bank to bite at the softer loam. 
Yonder an old peel tower, hid in clumps of the ivy green, 
Perched on its crag like an eyrie, and there the whole valley is 


Not an approach south or north, east or west, but the watch- 
man's eye 

Would catch the sheen of the spears, and the banners would 
well descry, 

And sound the alarm in time for hoisting the drawbridge high. 


Far at the end of the valley, open three narrow glens, 

Each with its own marked features, charactered clear as men's, 

Each with its own fair water finding its fitting way, 


Rough o'er the rocky channel, or still by the broomy brae. 

That to the left is rugged ; one side a bare bleak hill 

With a cataract, rugged, of stones down-rushing as if they would 


The glen with grey desolation ; and half way down a thorn 
Seems as it stayed the torrent, and was bent with the weight and 


Only that thorn on the hillside grapples the stones with its root, 
Only some scraggy hazel bushes straggle about its foot, 
Only the curlew wails there, and the grouse-cock crows at morn : 
Only the goat and the coney poise on those stony heaps, 
Only the parsley fern along their barren spaces creeps. 
And far below in the hollow the stream goes plunging on 
From the rocky steep to the rocky pool, and the rumbling 

boulder stone. 

The middle glen is wooded ; there the ancient lords of the land, 
Leaving their high-pitched eyrie, built a stately house and grand 
Right under the Murrough-crag, pine-clad up to the top, 
And they belted the woods all round them, and bade the high- 
ways stop, 
And they made them a goodly forest, stocked with the wild red 

And they drew the stream into fishponds, and swept with their 

nets the mere. 

# ***### 

Fair is the glen to the right, in its pastoral beauty still, 
Green in its holms and hollows, green to the top of each hill ; 
A line of alder and drooping birch marks where its river flows, 
But in its bare upper reaches only the juniper grows ; 
The stream conies out of a tarn on the hill, whose oozy edge 
Is fringed with a ring of lilies and an outer ring of sedge; 
And there is no road beyond that, only a mountain high, 
And a cairn of stones where the withered bones of the three 

brave brothers lie." 


Truly, Glencairn is a land of romance and of beauty, a 
land to reverence and to love. Its green pastoral hills and 
wooded valleys may lack some of the grander aspects of Scottish 
scenery, yet no fitter example could be found of the power of 
Nature, as Wordsworth puts it, 

" To impress 

With quietness and beauty, and so feed 
With lofty thoughts." 

Surely there must be few parishes that awaken in the heart 
of their children a more tender or a more enduring attachment 
to the soil that gave them birth, and the scenes that kindled the 
imagination of their youth. 


Our knowledge of the early history of Glencairn is extremely 
meagre. That the district was early occupied by a rude and 
warlike race is evidenced by the numerous cairns, camps, and 
forts that lie scattered over our hills and valleys ; but who the 
first settlers were, and by whom they were supplanted for there 
seems to have been a succession of peoples we cannot say 
with certainty. We know, however, that at the period of the 
Roman invasion of Scotland, a Celtic people called the Selgovae 
was established in the South, and it is to the place-names left 
by this people that we owe nearly all the knowledge we possess 
of our parish as it existed in early times. 

The predominance of Celtic place-names in Glencairn is 
very marked, not more than one-tenth being of Norse or Saxon 
extraction. This probably implies that the hold of the invader 
was less firm in Glencairn than it appears to have been in some 
of the more accessible portions of Dumfriesshire to the south 
and east. The four commonest Celtic prefixes in the parish 
are Glen, Craig, Sal, and Knock. These are closely followed 
by Auchen and Dal, while Bar, Ben, Mar, and Minnie or Mony 
are all frequent. 

Some of these prefixes are full of interest. Thus, the 
Auchens and the Dais tell us where the cultivated lands of the 
parish were originally situated. In Glencairn we have three 
Auchens and three Dais, namely Auchencheyne, Auchenfedrig, 
Auchenstroan, Dalwhat, Dalmacallan, and Daltammie; all of 
them places, it may be observed, situated at moderate eleva- 
tions, such as would be adapted to cultivation at a time when the 
land was covered, for the most part, with swamp and natural 


forest. Bal from baile, a town, farm, hamlet, or home, is 
found in such names as Bellyboucht, Balinnie, Baltonne, Bal- 
macane, etc., and indicates the situation of early dwellings. 
Coming to the prefix Glen, we meet with an interesting word in 
Glenwhisk. This is just the Gaelic gleann, a small valley, and 
uisge, water; a name as truly descriptive to-day as when it was 
first bestowed, perhaps two thousand years ago. Some place- 
names testify to the presence of certain forms of animal life now 
extinct in the district. Thus, Knockbrock is the badger's 
knoll, and Dalwhat the field of the wild cat. Among other 
names derived from the animal kingdom we have Craignee, the 
craig of the deer, and Knockchouk, the knoll of the hawk. 
Calmonel is probably reminiscent of St Colmanela, friend of 
Columba, and Lochanbennet of St. Benedict. The name 
Cloan, which we now find applied to a hill in Glencairn, is the 
Gaelic cluain, a meadow. It affords a curious example of the 
transference of a name to an object of an entirely different 
character, for it has nothing to do with the hill near Shancastle, 
but belongs to the meadow in the same neighbourhood. 

We shall have occasion to refer to other place-names later 
on. Meanwhile we pass to a particular account of the more 
outstanding names, including a number that are now little 
known, but that add to the record an interest of 'their own. 



A.S., Anglo-Saxon. G., Gaelic. O.N., Old Norse. 
Sc., Scots. W., Welsh. 

AUCHENCHEYNE. 1511, Auchincane ; 1549, Auchenyean; 1710, 
Auchenchenne ; 1725, Auchenchean; 1856, Auchenchain. 
Probably G., achadh-an-chain (e), field of the rent or 


AUCHENFEDDRICK. 1671, Aucheiifedrig. Probably, field of 

Patrick; G., achadh, a field, and Phadruig, Patrick. 
AUCHENSTROAN. Pont, 1610, Auchenstrowan ; G., achadh, a 

field, and struan, streamlet = The field of the little 

BALINNIE. G., baile, hamlet or dwelling, and G., linne, a 

BALMAKANE. G., baile, hamlet or dwelling, + personal name 

= Dwelling of the M'Kanes. 
BALTONNE. G., baile-duin, hamlet on the hill. 
BARBUIE. G., barr-buidhe, yellow height or extremity. 
BARDANNOCH. 1593, Bardannoch; 1610, Barnedannoche ; 

1610, Pont, Bardonoch; 1720, Barndennoch. G., barr, 

a height or hill. Suffix doubtful. 
BELLYBOUCHT. G., baile-bochd, poor town. 
BELWINNOC. Perh. G., baile, hamlet or dwelling + personal 

name = hamlet of St. Winnoc. 
BENBRACK. G., beinn, hill or mountain + G., breac, speckled 

= The speckled hill. 

BENBUIE. G., beinn-buidhe, The yellow hill. 
BLAIROCH. Perh. fr. G., liar, a plain, a place of peat mosses. 
BLAWPLAIN. An example of tautology. G., liar, a plain. 
BORLAND. Board or Mensal land a form of tenure. 
BRECONSIDE. Prob. hybrid; W., brycin, a brake or forest. 
CAITLOCH. 1559, Cadhelaucht; 1587, Catloche; Camden, 

circa, 1600, Castloch; Pont, 1610, Kaitloch; 1624, 

Cadzelauch. The earliest spelling suggests G., cadhal- 

ach, place of sleep. 
CALMONEL. 1671, Camanell. Prob. derived from St. Col- 

CALSIDE. 1687, Caulsyde. Possibly from G. cul, back, 

therefore, back-lying place. 
CAMBUSCAIRN. G., camus, a bend, a crook, sig. bend or crook 

of the Cairn (river). 


CORSMOLLOCH. W., cors, bog, fen + G. mullach, the top, 

summit, or, alt., mollach, rough, shaggy. 
CASTLEFAIRN. G., caisteal, a castle, a tower, and fearna, the 

alder tree = The castle or fortified tower by the alder 


CLOAN. G., cluain, a meadow. 
CONRICK. 1506, Conranche; 1580, Conrach; 1587, Comrik; 

Pont., 1610, Konrick; 1671, Conrike; 1722, Conrig. 

Doubtful. Perh. G. comar-ach, place of confluence. 
CORANBAE. 1727, Coranbay. G., coran-beith, bend or 

crescent of the birches. 
CORRIEDOW. G., coire, circular hollow, a mountain dell, 

and dubh, dark. 
CRAGGANOCH. G., creagan, rocks, sig. place full of little 

CRAIGDARROCH. G., creag, a rock, a crag, and darach, an 

oak = The rock of the oak wood. 
CRAIGENBEAST. G., creag-an-biast, the serpent's crag, or the 

monster's crag. 
CRAIGLEARAN. 1621, Craiglerian; 1725, Moll's Map, Kraig- 

leiran. Prob. G. creag + ladhar [pron. lear in the 

North] with the diminutive an = crag of the little fork. 
CRAIGNEE. Craig of the deer. G., creag-dn-fiadh (fh lost 

by aspiration). 
CRAIGNESTON. Possibly G. creag-an-easain, crag of the little 

CRAWFORDTON. Crawford's town or enclosure, from Saxon 

tun, an enclosure, a dwelling, a termination frequent 

in the parish. 
CRECHAN. A little boundary, or boundaries, fr. G. crioch, a 

CROSSFORD. Corsford (17th century). Perh. G. cors, a bog, 

a f en + ford. 


CUBBOCKS. Bent or hollowed place. G., cubach, bent, 

DALMACALLAN. G., dail, a field + personal name = field of 


, DALTAMMIE. Field of James; G., fSeamais. 
DALWHAT. Field or dale of the wild cat. G., dail, a field, 

and chat, a cat. 
DARDARROCH. Oak grove. G., doire, a grove, and darach, 

an oak. 
DARNANGILL. 1580, Darnagillie. Grove of the church or 

churchyard. G., doire, a grove, and G. cille, church or 

DIBBIN. 1506, Divane; 1579, Dovane; 1610; Pont, and 1725, 

Moll's Map, Dupein. G., dubh-bheinn, dark hill. 
DRUMLOFF. Perhaps G. druim, a ridge, and lobhtach, having 

lofts or storeys. 

DUNGALSTON. Personal name + ton, place or dwelling. 
DUNREGGAN. 1581, Drumreggane. G., druim chreagan (ch 

lost by aspiration), the craggy ridge, or ridge of the 

FLEUCHLARG. Wet hill-side. G., fleuch, wet, and learg, a 

hill, a sloping hill. 
GAPS MILL. 1511, Colliegawpoch ; 1776, Capach Mill; 1827, 

Gillygappoch Mill. G., coille ceapach, wood full of 

tree stumps. 
GIRHARROW. 1856, Gairharrow. Doubtful. Perhaps G., 

garbh-airidh, rough sheiling or hill pasture. 
GLENCROSH. 1610, Font's Map, Glenkroish. The glen of 

the cross, fr. G., gleann, a glen, and crois, a cross. 
GLENGAIR. The short glen. G., gleann-gearr. 
GLENJAAN. Probably the deep glen. G., gleann-domhain. 
GLENRIDDLE. From G., gleann, a glen, and Riddle, an ancient 

family name. 


GLENWHISK. G., gleann, a glen, and uisge, water. 

GOTAL (BURN). Prob. fr. the old verb gothele (1290, Oxford 

Diet.}, sig. a low mumbling noise. 
GRAYNES OR GRAINS. Prob. fr. O.N., greni, a branch; sig. 

branches of the valley. 

INGLESTON. Homestead of Inglis, or of the Englishmen. 
JARBRUCK. Jargbruch (14th century). Prob. rough bank, 

edge, or brim; G., garbhbruach. 
KILNKNOW. Old name of Hastings Hall. A kiln formerly 

existed in the neighbourhood. 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT. Church of St. Cuthbert. A. S. Cudberct. 
KIRKLAND. Lands pertaining to the Church. 
KNOCKAUCHLEY. 1579, Knockhachill ; 1608, Knockauchy; 

Pont, 1610, Knockachle. May be G., cnoc, a knoll, 

and eachlaich, of the groom, or eachleighe, of the farrier. 
KNOCKBROCK. The badger's knoll. G., cnoc, a hillock, a 

knoll, and broc, a badger. 
KNOCKCHOUK. The hawk's knoll. G., cnoc, a knoll, and 

seabhac [shouk], a hawk. 
KNOCKMALLIE. Prob. G., cnoc, a hillock or knoll, and G., 

ntaol, bald, bare. 
KNOCKSTRONY. G., cnoc, hillock, and sron, nose, or sruan, 

LAGDOW. The black hollow. G., lag, a hollow, and dubh, 

dark or black. 
LAGGANPARK. Park or field of the little hollow. G. laggan, 

diminutive form of lag, a hollow. 

LAIRMORE. G., learg, a plain, or side of a 'hill, and mor, big. 
LOCHANBENNET. Lochlet of St. Benedict. 
MARWHIRN. Plain of the cairn. G. machair-a-chuirn. 
MARGARDY. Perh. plain of the garden or of the gardener, fr. 

G. magh, a plain, and garadh, a garden. 
MAXWELTON. Personal name + /0 (A.S.), a dwelling. 


MINNYGRILE OR MoNYGRiLE. 1511, Minnigryll ; 1549, Mynneis- 

geill ; 1671, Minnygrill. Prefix G., monadh, a moor, or 

moine, a moss; suffix doubtful, perh. G. griomail (m lost 

by aspiration), grim, rugged, or barren. 
MOATIE. Prob. fr. G. mod, a court, an assembly. 
MONIAIVE. Many variants (see chap, xvi.) Prob. G. monadh- 

abh, moor of the water or stream. 
MULLWHANNY. G., me all ', lump, a hill or eminence, and uaine, 

green, or bhan, white. 
NEISS OR NIESS. 1610, Pont, Nise. A.S., nesse; Sc., nease, 

NYPES (THE). Little rocky hills. G., cnap, knob, knot, 


PEELTON. G., peel, a stronghold. 

PENTOOT. Head of the rising ground. Welsh, penn-towt. 
POWRAN. 1580, Powrane. Accent not known. May be 

Pictish, grazing land (Johnston), or G., poll (Sc. pow), 

a pool, and rinn, a point. Less probably G., raineach, 

SCLENERS OR SCHLENDERS. Shingle on the face of a declivity. 

Sc., S dithers. (Jamieson's Diet.). 
SHANCASTLE. Old castle. G., scan, old, and caisteal, a castle, 

a stone fort. 

SHAW. A thicket, a wood. A.S., scaga. 
SHIELD YKES. Probably from Sc., shieling, shelter. 
SHILLINGLAND. Derived from old valuation. 
SHINWALIE. Old township or dwelling. G., sean, old, and 

bhaile, dwelling. 

SNADE. Probably G., snathad, a needle. 
STRAITH. G., srath, a valley. 
STRANSHALLOCH. Pont, 1610, Stronshelach ; 1635, Stron- 

shalloch. G., sron, nose or point, and seileach, willow 

= point of the willows. Perh. sron, point, and sealladh, 




TEMPLAND. Lands formerly owned by the Knights Templars. 
TERERRAN. 1511, Trorarane; 1610, Pont, Tarrans; 1671, 

Terraren; 1747, Rae MS., Tarroran; Terorane. Prefix 

prob. G. tir, land; suffix doubtful, perh. derived from 

St. Ciaran. 

THREERIGGS. Sc., rig, ridge. 
TWOMERKLAND. Derived from old valuation. 
URR. Pre-Celtic word sig. water. 
WAULKMILL. Sc., wauk, to full or dress cloth. 
WAAS. Prob. A.S., waes, a moist meadow, hence applied to 

places situated on low lands. 

It must, unfortunately, be admitted, that through changes 
in spelling and other causes, many of the meanings assigned to 
these old place-names are more or less conjectural. There are 
names, however, that have undergone few or no changes, and 
it is a never-failing source of interest to observe the suitability 
of these to the places upon which, in the far distant past, they 
were bestowed. 



Apart from place-names there is very little we are able 
to glean concerning the early conditions of life in the parish. 
No doubt the Wild Ox, the Bear, the Badger, the Boar, the 
Wolf, the Red Deer, and the Beaver abounded in Glencairn as 
in other parts of Britain; but out of the seven animals named 
it is of two only that undoubted remains have been found. In 
1886 a horn of the Wild Ox (Bos primigenius) was found 
embedded in a peat moss not far from the north-western border 
of the parish, 1 and in 1908 an antler of a large species of Red 
Deer was exposed in the bed of the Craigdarroch stream. 
Various weapons and implements of stone have likewise been 
discovered in the parish. Such remains are of the greatest 
possible interest, for they tell us of a time when our parish was 


inhabited by a people who lived a nomadic life, and depended 
for sustenance on their skill with bow and spear. It must, 
however, be confessed that the number of such relics actually 
found in the parish is by no means large. An annotated list 
of what may be called portable relics will be found at the end 

1. The Specimen is now in the possession of Mr Richard Hodgson, 


of the present chapter. Meanwhile we propose to describe 
somewhat fully the more important remains of human occu- 
pancy that are still to be met with in situ within the parish 


Insulation on a natural or an artificial island in a lake 
seems to have been the favourite means of defence in the days 
when people had not learned to enclose themselves within stone 
walls. Down to between forty and fifty years ago very little 
was known about crannogs or lake-dwellings in Scotland, but 
since that time a mass of information has accumulated which 
enables us to form an idea, not only of the mode of their con- 
struction, but also of the degree of civilisation that had been 
attained at the period when they were in use. In view of the 
importance that attaches to such structures, it is of interest to 
know that the remains of a lake-dwelling are to be found at 
Loch Urr, close to the southern border of the parish. During 
the autumn of 1902 the writer had the honour of being asso- 
ciated with Mr James Barbour, F.S.A. (Scot.), in conducting a 
series of investigations into the character of the Loch Urr lake- 
dwelling, on behalf of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society. The results, as embodied 
in a report to the Society (see Transactions, 1902-3, pp. 242-6), 
may be summarised as follows: 

Loch Urr, according to the O.S. Map, is 623-9 feet 
above sea-level. Its area is 137-765 acres, of which 33*741 
are in Balmaclellan, Kirkcudbrightshire; 33-125 in Glencairn, 
Dumfriesshire; and 50-899 in Dunscore, Dumfriesshire. The 
place that it fills in history is not large. It is mentioned in 
Chalmers's Caledonia (Vol. II., p. 217), where the author lays 
Symson's MS. Account of Galloway, 1684, under contribution; 
in the Old and also in the New Statistical Account; in various 


Gazetteers, notably Fullarton's (Vol. II., p. 789); and in 
Munro's Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings. 1 

So far as ascertained by the investigations the remains at 
Loch Urr consist of 

(1) A gangway of stone 114 feet in length, entirely sub- 

merged, and running in an oblique line from the shore to 
a small island in the loch. 

(2) An island, 66 feet in length by 33 feet in breadth, on the 

line of the gangway. 

(3) A second gangway of stone 56 feet in length, partially 

submerged, and communicating with a second and 
larger island. 

(4) The principal island, 180 feet by 64 feet, with ruins of an 

encircling wall and four walled dwellings. 
The excavations were almost entirely confined to the larger 
island. Two workmen, acting under directions, opened a 
trench about four feet wide along the entire length of the 
island. Portions of the walls that mark the four buildings 
erected on the north side of the interior area were exposed to 
the foundation. All the walls gave clear evidence of care in 
construction, but no traces of mortar were visible. The 
amount of debris found in the neighbourhood of the walls was 
not large, and it is therefore probable that they had not been 
carried to any great height, perhaps not more than three feet 
at the most. The thickness is about two feet three inches. 
All the material lying within one of the enclosures was removed, 
without revealing, however, any features of special interest. 
An outer wall, built of dry stone without mortar, like the inner 
enclosures already mentioned, would appear to have encircled 
the island. A fragment of this wall, still standing, measures 

1. In addition to these references, an account of An Excursion to 
Lough Urr in 1787 by Doctor Clapperton, M.D., is contained in the 
Riddell Coll. of MSS., preserved in the Library of the Society of 
Antiquaries, Edinburgh. 


four feet in height and six feet in thickness. Near the entrance 
to the island additional stone-work, in the form of what may 
have been rude buttresses, is found. This part of the defences 
seems to have been carefully constructed, and must have formed 
a formidable obstacle to an enemy attacking the stronghold from 
the direction of the gangway. 


In addition to the island remains, there is an earthwork on 
the mainland to the south. It consists of a well-defined ditch 
and rampart thrown across the neck of a peninsula, and appears 
to have been a work of importance. The length of the ram- 
part may be stated approximately at five hundred feet. On 
the west, where it is most entire, it rises above the present level 
of the trench in front to a height of between eleven and twelve 
feet. In the rear of the rampart a rough stone pavement ten 
feet in width is found. As the stones composing this pavement 
lie near the surface, they have the effect of altering the char- 
acter of the vegetation, and in this way the pavement can be 
traced along the greater part of the line of rampart. The 
trench in front of the rampart is silted up to a depth of nearly 
six feet. This fact is important, for it proves almost conclu- 
sively that the point of land which we now know as a peninsula 
was at one time an island, hence in all probability the name 
" White Isle," which it still retains. There can be little doubt, 
we think, that an intimate connection existed between the earth- 
work and the lake-dwelling. The two are little more than 
three hundred yards apart, and we know that fortifications on 
land, adjacent to lake-dwellings, are a more or less constant 
feature of such remains elsewhere. The relics found during 
the progress of the excavations were very few. It is therefore 
difficult to fix with certainty the period to which the Loch Urr 
Crannog belongs. Dr Anderson, of the National Museum of 
Antiquities, Edinburgh, founding upon certain fragments of 


pottery, is disposed to think it may have been near the close of 
the Roman occupation (410 A.D.), or perhaps a little later. In 
view of this opinion, it is interesting to recall a legend, still 
current in the district, that here a Roman cohort was sur- 
rounded and starved into submission by a body of early Britons. 
It need only be said that no one familiar with the ground will 
be disposed to doubt the feasibility of the exploit. 


Two "camps" are marked on the 1-inch O.S. Map as 
occurring in Glencairn, namely, " Snade Camp" and "Castle 
Hill Camp." As the area of both entrenchments is small, 
some might prefer to call them "forts." It will, however, be 
convenient to adhere to the 1-inch Survey Map. 


This circular, or nearly circular, entrenchment lies on the 
western bank of the river Cairn, about three hundred yards 
above the ford that crosses from Cambuscairn to Snade. It 
presents several features of structural interest, and has been 
described as " one of the most perfect examples of a British 
camp to be found in the district." The Rev. Richard Simp- 
son, B.D., Dunscore, in reporting upon the camp to the "Dum- 
friesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society ' ' says : " Here no natural points of strength have 
been seized and skilfully adapted for defence, but everything 
has been laboriously constructed by the hand of man. . . 
We found the form of the fort to be elliptical, or perhaps it 
would be more correct to say that it is an irregular circle. The 
longer diameter 259 feet over all runs nearly north and 
south; and the shorter diameter 253 feet nearly east and 
west. . . . The outer trench is both wide and deep. It 
varies in width from 32 feet on the eastern side to 43 feet on 


the west the narrowest part being nearest the river, and the 
widest where the ground rises slightly above and overlooks the 
entrenchment. Other measurements gave 38 and 39 feet on 
the north and on the south. On these sides the depth does 
not exceed a couple of feet, but the ground was too soft to 
make sure. On the west we measured 10 feet 10 inches in 
depth, not at the deepest part. On the east it appears to be 
deeper still. . . . The rampart within this outer trench, 
with its curved upper surface, measures 16 feet across on the 
north, 15 feet on the west, 14 feet on the south, and 13 feet on 
the east. It varies considerably in height, being loftiest on 
the east and west. Within this rampart there is a second 
trench, varying in width from 20 feet on the south and east to 
24 feet on the north and 30 feet on the west. The depth of 
this ditch will be about 5 feet, and less than that in some 
places. . . . The level area so thoroughly defended is not 
of great extent. It measures 108 feet from north to south, and 
barely 100 feet (a measurement taken by the writer gave 98 
feet) from east to west." 


Castle Hill camp or fort is situated near Drumloff, about 
four and a half miles north of Moniaive, on an eminence 1081 
feet above sea-level. It measures upwards of 1000 feet in 
circumference, and is the largest as well as the loftiest defensive 
work in the parish. The central area is flat, and measures 281 
feet in length by 173 in breadth. The defences consist of two 
lines of trenches with ramparts formed out of the excavated 
soil. On the north and north-west both the ditches and the 
ramparts are well defined, but at other points on the south and 
east they are far from distinct. The form of the work is quasi- 
rectangular, and in all probability that is the reason why it has 
been ascribed to the Romans (see Monteith's The Parish of 


Glencairn, pp. 7-8). So far as we are aware, no Roman 
remains have been found on the site of the earthwork, and, 
although a fragment of a reputed Roman roadway exists in the 
neighbourhood, the evidence connecting the position with 
occupation by the legions is extremely slight. 

In the 6-inch O.S. map, which contains details not to be 
found in the 1-inch map, three other works of a defensive 
character are recorded, viz. : 

(1) "Earthwork," near Birkshaw. 

(2) "Mote," near Shancastle. 

(3) "Mote and Bow-Butts," near Jarbruck. 

The earthwork at Birkshaw has suffered so much from 
natural decay that it is now difficult to form an opinion as to 
its size and character. We propose, therefore, to confine our 
attention to the motes at Shancastle and Jarbruck, both of which 
are in a good state of preservation. 


This small mote is situated on the right-hand side of the 
road from Moniaive to Dumfries, directly opposite the entrance 
to the farmhouse of Shancastle. It occupies a natural knoll, 
and is strengthened on the north, where nature is weakest, by 
two trenches backed by earthen ramparts. The summit is level 
and measures 74 feet by 64 feet. From this platform the 
ground slopes abruptly to the trenches, which are about 15 feet 
in width and 2| feet in depth. Stones protrude from a tree- 
planted ridge on the west, but it is difficult to ascertain the 
significance of these owing to the presence of a network of roots. 
The position overlooks a wide expanse of country, especially to 
the north and west, and what is of interest to note commands 
the Cloan pass as it opens on Glencairn from the Valley of the 



Jarbruck mote or mound, known also as the " Bow-butts of 
Ingleston," forms a prominent feature in the landscape about a 
mile and a-half to the east of Moniaive. It is of an oblong 
form, and has at each end an earthen turret cut off from the 
main body by a deep trench. The length of the central portion 
is 220 feet, and the height 34 feet. The breadth varies from 
40 feet at the eastern end to 90 feet at the western. The 
eastern turret is not more than 30 feet in height, but the western 
turret rises to a height of 44 feet with a diameter at the top of 
32 feet. On the south-west there is a well-defined roadway 
giving access to the mound. It is about 150 feet in length by 
12 feet in breadth, and has ridges of from 2-3 feet in height 
along each side. 

Numerous conjectures have been made as to the original 
design of the mound. Grose, the antiquary, writing in 1789, 
adopts an opinion apparently current in his day, that the mote 
had been raised to serve as an arena for the practice of archery. 
The late Mr William Bennet, a native of Glencairn, falls foul 
of Grose for this, and contends that it marks the last resting 
place of an Arch-Druid. The late Rev. John Monteith ascribes 
the mound to the Romans (see The Parish of Glencairn, p 8), 
while a recent writer, the Rev. Dr J. King Hewison, of 
Rothesay, believes it to have been formed by the Normans. So 
far as the tradition adopted by Grose is concerned, it is by no 
means improbable that the mound may have been resorted to 
in feudal times for the practice of archery. We know that the 
Scottish Parliament was extremely anxious to encourage the use 
of the bow, and that an Act was passed providing for the erec- 
tion of bow-butts in the neighbourhood of parish churches, to 
which all men between the ages of sixteen and sixty were 
required to repair at stated intervals. It is unlikely, however, 
that the mound was originally designed for such a use. We 


think it is a natural mound adapted to a defensive rather 
than a recreative purpose, but in the absence of an exhaustive 
survey accompanied by excavation it is impossible to speak 
with certainty. Dr David Christison, writing of this class of 
remains, says : 

" The study of Scottish motes has yet to be made from the 
foundation. History is silent concerning their use, and no 
general account of their nature, number, and distribution exists. 
An unfortunate complication is the difficulty of distinguishing 
between motes, or fortresses, and moot-hills, or meeting places. 
Not only is the resemblance between the words mote and moot 
very close, although they are derived from very different roots 
the one signifying ' dust ' and the other ' an assembly ' but 
it extends to the objects themselves, both consisting essentially 
in little eminences, natural or artificial. ... It may well 
be that as far as structure goes the motes and forts pass into 
each other by insensible gradations." 

The mound stands on a part of the Crawfordton estate. 
From the top the turrets of Crawfordton mansion-house may be 
seen about half a mile to the northward, and the old and the 
new are thus brought into intimate relationship. 


Two other works, which are not marked on either the 
1-inch or the 6-inch O.S. Map, call for notice. The larger of 
these is situated about a quarter of a mile to the east of Max- 
welton House. It occupies the south-east corner of what is 
called the " Horse Park, ' ' and lies close to the roadway that 
connects the Clean road with the Dumfries road. The work 
is elliptical in form, and measures 198 feet in length by 144 
feet in breadth. The defences consist of two lines of rampart 
composed partly of earth and partly of stone. The area within 
the inner rampart is small, measuring only 26 feet by 24 feet. 


An interesting feature of this part of the defences is that 
stone has been used to a much larger extent than is usual in 
works of a similar kind in other parts of the parish. The 
entrance has probably been from the south-west, but this cannot 
be stated with certainty, as the outlines of the work are obscured 
at this particular point by a plantation of young trees and a 
rank undergrowth of herbage. 

The smaller work is situated on the opposite bank of the 
river Cairn about one-eighth of a mile to the east of Old Craw- 
fordton. Both its position and its appearance suggest a defen- 
sive purpose. It is circular in form and has a diameter of sixty- 
six feet. The single rampart by which it is inclosed is composed 
of earth and stone, and is well-defined, although it does not rise 
to more than two feet above the present level of the ground 
forming the interior. An opening to the south probably marks 
the point of entrance. The central area, except for slight 
inequalities due to the presence of small heaps of stones, is flat. 
It is noteworthy that this work is situated almost midway between 
Maxwelton fort on the east and Shancastle mote on the north, 
and that all three positions command the important Cloan pass. 

The Rev. Peter Rae (1671-1748) thinks it probable that the 
Boon of Shancastle, which rises in the same neighbourhood, was 
a Roman Castellum or Out Camp, " designed to keep the 
highway leading to Tibbers (Penpont parish) from the lower 
parts of Nithsdale and Galloway." But this may be regarded 
as largely conjectural. Certainly if the Boon ever possessed 
features to justify such an opinion they have now entirely dis- 

Belonging to a comparatively recent period we find in 
Glencairn the remains of a number of " keeps ' ' or fortified 
towers such as were possessed by nearly every feudal baron. 
Eight of these may be counted within as many miles. Five are 
in ruins, viz., at Snade, Breconside, Old Crawfordton, Peelton, 


and Jarbruck. Happily, a kinder fate has attended the keeps 
of Maxwelton, Caitloch, and Craigdarroch, all of which have 
been transformed into handsome modern mansion-houses. 


In addition to the large cairns mentioned in an earlier 
chapter, a number of small cairns if we may apply that name 
to mounds often partly composed of earth are to be found 
scattered here and there over the more hilly portions of the 
parish. The largest congeries of these certainly upwards of 
a hundred is to be found at Girharrow. Smaller groups 
occur near Auchencheyne, Craiglearan, Castlehill, Crossford, 
Dalwhat, Lochurr, Jarbruck, and Woodhead. Kistvaens have 
been found, probably on sites formerly occupied by cairns, at 
Meikle Stewarton (see Riddell MSS., 1790) and at Girharrow 
(circa 1854). 

That the small cairns, like the large cairns and tumuli, 
were places of sepulture can scarcely be doubted, and the 
frequency with which such remains occur in Glencairn testifies 
to the presence of a numerous population long prior to the 
introduction of Christianity. 


SMOOTHING AND IRONING STONE. Of heavy spar, quadrangular 
in shape, 5J inches long, from Glencairn. (This specimen 
is figured in the Catalogue and Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries.) National Collection, Edinburgh. 

BALL OF GREENSTONE. 3J inches in diameter, found in Glen- 
cairn. Grierson Museum Collection. 

STONE WHORLS. Two, one ornamented, found in Glencairn. 
Grierson Museum Collection. 


QUERN STONE. Under-stone of a quern found in a field near 
Minnyhive. Presented by Mr Samuel Proudfoot, Waulk- 
mill, February, 1869. Grierson Museum Collection. 

cairn. Grierson Museum Collection. 

SCULPTURED STONE PILLAR. Supposed to have been removed 
from near Stroanf reggan, Kirkcudbrightshire ; now standing 
in garden grounds at Hastings Hall, Moniaive. Proprietor, 
James A. Mather, Esq. 

STONE HAMMER. Small perforated, 4 by 2^- inches, found 
near Auchenstroan, Glencairn, May, 1907. The property 
of Mr Augustus Hislop. 

FLINT FLAKES, showing traces of secondary working, found near 
Moniaive, 1910. Mr John M. Corrie, Dumfries. 


STONE HAMMER. Perforated, found at Moniaive, 1909. 
Length, 5 inches; breadth, 3; thickness, If. The 
perforation is If inches at the surface, narrowing to y^ 

STONE HAMMER. Large perforated, found near Castlehill, 
Glencairn, in 1896. Length, 7 inches; breadth, 3| inches; 
thickness, 3 inches; weight, 4 Ibs. If ozs. 

breadth, found near Benbuie, Glencairn, 1904. 

OVOID STONE. 3f by 2| inches, grooved longitudinally on both 
sides, presumably from use as a point-sharpener. 1895. 

ANVIL STONE. Found near Gaps Mill, Glencairn, 1904. 
ADDER BEAD. Found in Glencairn. 
HOLED CHARM STONES. Two, Glencairn. 


HAMMER STONES. Various types, found in Glencairn. 
STONE WHORLS. Various, found in Glencairn. 
QUERNS. Several, found in Glencairn. 

TRIPOD EWER. Found near the south-western border of the 
parish in 1885. 

ANTLER OF RED DEER. Found in bed of Craigdarroch stream, 
near Moniaive, 1908. 



Of the civil history of the parish prior to the sixteenth 
century very little information is available. In the Tax Roll of 
1554 the "Barony of Glencairn " is valued at 120 pounds 
Scots (10 sterling). Other properties in the district are 
entered at equally low valuations. It is probable, however, 
that the figures given do not represent the actual yearly value 
of the lands mentioned, but merely the ratable value placed 
upon them by their owners. The first serious attempt to pre- 
pare a reliable Roll of the Shire of Dumfries appears to have 
been made in 1667. Great pains, we are told, were taken to 
render the Roll of 1667 as complete as possible. Notwith- 
standing this, it was soon discovered to be extremely erroneous 
and defective. A special Act authorising corrections was 
accordingly passed by the Privy Council, and on the 7th May, 
1671, the Commissioners of Supply made up and certified a new 
Valuation Roll, differing materially from the former one. As 
this early roll contains much that is of interest to present-day 
residents in the parish we print it in extenso side by side with the 
modern roll of 1827. 



Maxweltoune's lands, viz. : The Four merk and halfe 
merkland of Auchenstrowan, The Three merkland of 
Baltonne, The Twa merkland of Craiglirian, The Twa 
merke halfe merkland of Mairtour, The Twa merk- 
land of Drumloaff, The Twa merk halfe merkland 
of Burnfoot, The Three merkland of Hill, The Fyftie 
shillingland of Peilstoune, The Three merkland of 
Shankistoun, The Fyve merkland of Maxwell toun, 
The Three poundland of Belliboucht and Corsfoord, 
The Threttie shillingland of Braikensyd, The Fourtie 
ehillingland of Straithhead, The Fourtie shillingland \ 


Mks. s. d. 

of Aucheufedrig, The Fourtie shillingland of Dar- 
darroch, The halfe merkland of Clanstoune, The 
Tvva merkland of Castlefairne, The Milne, The 
merkland of Little Laggan, The merkland of 
Meikle Laggan, The Twa merkland of Gordiestoune 3,400 
The Lands pertaining to Robert Fergusson of Craig- 
darroch, The Four merkland of Jedburghe, Lochan- 
bennet, and Damacullen, Craigdarroch Milne and 
Lagdow, The Twa merkland of Moss and Graynes 
and Coatrnantack, The land called the Twentie 
shillingland, The Three merk halfe merkland 
of Chapelmark and Corrodow, The Twa merk halfe 
merkland of Cornbie, The Twa merk halfe merkland 
of Conrike, The Twa merk halfe merkland of 
Blairoh, The Twa merk halfe merkland of Benbowie, 
The Twa merk halfe merkland of Barnbowrie, The 
Threttie-twa shillingland of Craigdarroch, The 
Twentie shillingland of Neise, The Fyve merkland of 
Barndarroche, Over Caitloch, Camanell, and merk- 
land of Dungalstoune ... 1,500 

The Lands pertaining to John M'Gachan, The Twa 
merk halfe merkland of Dalwhat head, The merkland 
of The Mayns of Dalwhat, The Twa merk halfe 
merkland of Mairwhairne ... ... ... ... 562 

The Lands pertaining to Inglestoune, The merkland 
of Kirkland, The merklands of Gilmourstoune, The 
Twa merkland of Mid Inglestoune, The halfe merk- 
land pertaining to him, The Milne of Twa merkland 657 6 8 

The Over merkland of Kirkland 90 00 

The Twa merkland of Birkshaw 122 6 8 

The Fourtie shilling land of Freuchlarg 200 

The Twa Merkland of Nether Inglestoune 300 

The land pertaining to James Craik, The Threttie 
shilling land of Compstoune, The Milne c;f Snaid, The 
Twa merkland of Coatstoune, The Twa merkland of 
Keulstun, The merkland of Gaitsyd and merkland of 
Mossettstoun, The merkland of the Twa merkland 

and merkland of Stuartoune 775 

The Twa merkland of Cleughsyd and Lairmore, The \ 
Twa Merkland of Claak, Kidstoune, and Brattle- L 

stoune J 250 

The merkland of Netherclaak, pertaining to Bogrie ... 20 
The Laird of Crawfurdfcoun's haill lands besyd his 

lands purchased from Stuartoun 600 






The Twa merkland of Blackstouiie 


The Three poundland of Auchencheyne 


The merke halfe merkland of Dibbin 
Che merkland of L/ochwhir ... 



The Twa merkland of Minnygryll, and Twa Merkland \ 
of Kirkcudbright, Nether Caitloch, and Twa merk (. 
halfe merkland of Dunreggin ... ... ... ) 



The Twa merkland of Craignestin, and Twa merkland 
of Threerigs 




The Twa merkland of Glencrosh ... 


The merkland of Nether Kirkcudbright 


The Threttie shilling land of Creichen and Boddom ... 


The Threttie shilling land of Braickensyd 


The Threttie shillingland of Calsyd 




The Twa merk halfe merkland of Glengaer ... ... 
The Fyve merkland of Terraren ... 




The lands of Snaid, Borland, Gerristoune, and Shaw... 
The merk land of Knockauchley ... 



Suma ... ... 12,056 

Twelve Thousand and fyftie-six merks. 


Particular Val. Total. 
Robt. Cutlar Fergusson of Orroland and 

Craigdarroch Mains, Dungalston, 

and Ewanston 242 6 8 

Thirty-shillingland of Creechan 

and Boddam 273 

Thirty-shillingland of Callside ... 187 6 8 

Marwhirn 154 

Craigdarroch Parks, being Chappel- 
merk and Twenty-shillingland of 

Camonel 112 6 8 

Nether Tack 27 

Upper Caitloch and Caitlochpark 20 

Part of Marwhirn 20 

1,036 6 8 


Particular Val. Total. 
Jas. Walker of Crawfurdton. 

The Laird of C.'s hail Lands, 
exclusive of the Lands purchased 

from Stewarton 600 

Two merkland of Cleughside and 
Lairmore, and Two-merkland of 
Claak, Kidston, and Brattleston 250 
Stewarton, holden of Duke of 


Buccleuch and Queeneberry 


Westside of Merkland of Kirkland 


Easfcside thereof 

- 20 

Rear-Admiral Sir Robt. Laurie of 

Maxwelton, Bart. 





Shancastle or Shankieston 




Bankhead or Auchenfeddricks 




Straith or Straithhead 












975 8 8 

Society for Propagating Christian Know.. 

Twomerkland, Gateside, Moffats- 

toun, Keulston, Coatstoun, 

Compstoun, and Miln of Snaid, 

holden of the Crown J 686 

Borland, and remainder of Snaid 235 


Jno. Barber of Terarran. 

Five-merkland of Terraran ... 312 6 8 
Benbuie and Cornbie 212 

Martour and Little Dibbon ... 175 

699 6 8 

Trustees of Wm. Forbes of Callander. 

Auchenstroan and Stranshalloch... 282 6 8 
Castlefairn 252 

Neiss and Ballinnie 151 6 8 


Wm. Collow of Auchenchain. 

Three-merkland of Auchenchain ... 300 
Two-merkland of Craigneeton ... 200 
Two-merkland and Miln thereof ... 129 6 8 

Half -merkland 5000 

679 6 8 


Particular Val. Total. 
Trustees of Bobt. Gillespie of Peelton. 

Hill or Gillygappock, with Miln 

and Miln Lands of Gillygappock 290 

Part of Peelton 151 10 8 

Half of Dunreggan, called Burn- 
foot, and the whole of Templand 
Meadow 131 1 

572 11 8 

Robt. Kennedy of Craigshiel. 

Mains of Dalwhat and Dalwhathead 268 
Drumloff 151 


Robt. Welsh of Collin. 

Shaw, Gairriston, and part of Snaid 212 
Gilmerstoun 138 


Rev. Thos. Gibson of Glencrosh. 

Twomerkland of Glencrosh 165 

Merkland of Threerigs 137 


Rev. Dr Alex. Scot of Over Ingleston. 

Mid and Over Ingleston 300 

Mrs Smith. 

Twomerkland of Nether Ingleston 300 

Gilbert Collow of Blackstone. 

Blackstone 150 

Over Kirkcudbright 135 


Arch. Wallace of Conrick. 

Conrick 138 

Meikle Dibbon, and Holm of Little 
Dibbon 138 


Wm. Smith of Glenjaan. 

Two-merk Half-merkland of Glenjaan 200 

Heirs of Jas. and D. Wallace. 

Forty-shillingland of Fleuchlarg 200 00 

Alex. Smith and W. M'Call. 

Nether Caitloch and Dunreggan 186 

Robt. Kirk of Craiglirian. 

Craiglirian 181 10 


Particular Val. Total. 
Heirs of Wm. Martin of Dardarroch. 

Dardarroch 180 11 

Alex. Moffat of Lochurr. 

Merkland of Lochurr ... 180 

Heirs of Wm. Niocol of Laggan. 

Meikle and Little Laggan ... 176 6 8 

Miss Dobie of Breconside. 

Breckonside 171 6 

Walter Stewart of Graynes. 

Part of Neisekiln, Damhouse, Nei&e 
Parks, Craigdarroch Miln Lands, 
Waulkmiln and Feu Duties of 

Minyhive 109 5 8 

Part of Graynes, and Feu Duties of 
Minyhive ... ... ... ... 56 6 8 

165 12 4 

Alex. Smith of Land. 

Two-merkland of Minnygryle ... 154 

Jas. Smith of Jedburgh. 

Over-merkland of Kirkland ... 90 

Jerburgh 63 


Jas. Goldie of Knockauchly. 

Merkland of Knockauchly 150 

David Hastings of Corrodow. 

Corrodow 140 

Heirs of Mrs Wilson. 

Merkland of Nether Kirkcudbright 135 

Alex. Moffat of Barbuie. 

Two-merk Half-merkland of Bar- 
buie or Benbuie 102 6 8 

Part of Barndannoch 23 

Part of Kilnknow 334 

128 10 
John Waugh. 

Part of Dalwhat, called Holmhead 120 

John Wallace. 

Blairoch HO 

Jas. Coreon of Peelton 

Part of Peelton HO 2 8 


Particular Vol. Total. 
Thos. Moffat. 

Barndannoch ... ... ... ... ... 93 6 8 

Jas. Anderson of Stroquhan. 

Gordiestoun .................. 90 10 

Jas. Hastings. 

Part of Neisekiln, Damhouse, 
Neise Parks, Craigdarroch Miln 
Lands, Waulkmiln, and Feu 
duties of Minyhive ... ... 63 4 4 

Part of Kilnknow ......... 10 6 8 

John Caven. 

Part of Two-merkland of Birkehaw ... ... 

Thos. Johns tone. 

Another part thereof ... ... ... ... 

Thos. Black. 

Clarenston .................. 

Jas. Niven. 

Part of Two-merkland of Birkshaw ...... 

John and Jas. Haining. 

Merkland of Nether Claak, pertaining to Bogrie 

Total valuation of the Parish of Glencairn 12,056 

Twelve Thousand and fifty-six merks.* 
Minister's stipend, 272 Os 4d, and 8 6s 8d for Communion 

elements. The Teinds are exhausted. 
Last augmentation dated 24th Jany., 1821. 
School salary, 600 merks. 

* Merk, equal to 13s 4d Scots, or 13gd sterling. 

As Rolls of later date are easily accessible, they do not 
call for notice here. Suffice it to say that the valua- 
tion of the parish according to the returns for 1909-10, is 
14,506 8s 7d. Value of railways, etc., 201. Total, 
14,707 8s 7d. 



Although Christianity is believed to have been introduced 
into the South of Scotland in 397 A.D., the condition of 
anarchy that followed the withdrawal of the Roman power early 
in the fifth century had all but extinguished the light of Gospel 
truth when Cuthbert, a devout monk of Melrose, appeared 
(A.D. 635-87) to fan the flickering flame. " This zealous 
missionary," says Bede, "sought out those remote villages 
which were situated far from the world in wild mountain places 
and fearful to behold, and which as well by their poverty as 
by their distance up the country prevented intercourse between 
them and such as could instruct their inhabitants." In the 
course of his arduous and self-denying labours Cuthbert pene- 
trated into the country of the Picts of Galloway, and it is 
certainly a matter of no little interest that, despite the lapse of 
more than twelve hundred years, our parish still retains distinct 
traces of his presence. In the Castlefairn valley, about a mile 
south-west of Moniaive, may be seen the site of Saint Cuthbert's 
chapel, or cell (see O.S. map), and the associations of the 
spot with that early apostle are further emphasised by the 
j)lace-names " Kirkcudbright " (Church of Saint Cuthbert) and 
" Glencrosh " (Glen of the Cross), which occur in the near 
neighbourhood. In all probability these names mark the place 
of the first Christian church in the parish, and thus point to 
the permanent establishment of Christianity. From time im- 
memorial the Castlefairn valley must have been the natural line 
of communication in passing from Dumfriesshire to Galloway; 1 

1. In a document of the thirteenth century (Lib, de Melros) 
reference is made to the "king's highway" (regia via) leading from 
Dercongal on to Glencairn, and thence, it may be presumed, into 


and it may well be that at this particular spot Saint Cuthbert 
rested in the course of his journeyings, and that the place was 
afterwards consecrated by devoted followers to his memory. 
About three miles further westward, just beyond where Glen- 
cairn marches with the parish of Dairy, another early chapel 
must have existed, for a portion of the lands of Lochrennie 
bears the name "Chapelrig," and in the neighbourhood of a 
perforated standing-stone itself, in all probability, a memorial 
of a still earlier form of worship there was until recently a 
heap of debris, to which tradition points as marking the site 
that the chapel occupied. 

For several centuries subsequent to the death of Saint 
Cuthbert we know very little about the history of our own 
country in general and absolutely nothing about what we now 
call Glencairn. "It is somewhat astounding," as Hill Burton 
observes, " to reflect on so enormous a blank in the annals of a 
nation's religion, but it is perhaps reassuring it is certainly a 
matter of great interest in itself that during that long period 
of obscurity Christianity lived on." In the twelfth century light 
begins to break through the darkness, and it is then that Glen- 
cairn emerges to take a place in the national annals. 

About the year 1116 David I. of Scotland caused an 
inquisition to be made by " the older and wiser men of Cambria ' ' 
respecting the ancient possessions of the See of Glasgow, when 
it was found that certain churches in Dumfriesshire belonged by 
right to that See. The authority of the Episcopate of Glasgow 
over the parishes of Eskdale, Ewisdale, Drivesdale, Annandale, 
Glencarn, and Stranith, with a part of Cumberland, was accord- 
ingly confirmed in Pope Alexander's bull to Joceline, the Bishop 
of Glasgow, during the year 1178, and it was reconfirmed by 
Pope Lucius in 1181, and by Pope Urban in 1186. David's 
benefactions to the Church procured for him canonization as a 
saint, but this did not save him from the reproach of a sue- 


cessor, who, on discovering the impoverished condition of the 
royal exchequer, declared that he was " ane sair sanct for the 
crown." It was during the reign of David I. that the celebrated 
order of the Templars or Red Friars acquired possessions in 
the south-west districts of Scotland. Their presence and influ- 
ence in Glencairn is attested by references in old records to 
"the Temple-lands of Ingleston," and "the Acres of the Temple- 
land meadow." It is of interest to find that the latter descrip- 
tion still lingers in an attenuated form in the field-name " The 
Acres," as applied to a portion of land on the Crawfordton 
estate, situated to the north-east of Dunreggan. 

Generally speaking, very little is known concerning the 
Catholic clergy who officiated in particular parishes in pre- 
Reformation days. In many instances not even their names 
have been preserved. Glencairn, happily, has been more for- 
tunate. On the 19th of July, 1319, we find " Glencarne " men- 
tioned as receiving a presentee from King Edward II. (Bain's 
Calendar of Documents Relating to Scotland, vol. iii.), and in 
the Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers we meet with 
frequent references to men who celebrated the rites of religion in 
our parish more than 500 years ago. All the entries in the 
Papal Registers are full of interest. 

"To John de Peblis, M.A., Provision of a canonry of 
Glasgow, with expectation of a prebend, notwithstanding that 
he has the church of Glenqwym (identified with Glencairn, Co. 
Dumfries, in index) in the same diocese." Letters, Vol. III. 
(Innocent VI.) 1355. 4 Non. Sept. 

"Brice Ker, M.A., and S.C.L., for the church of Glen- 
karne, in the diocese of Glasgow, value 30/, void by reason that 
William de Houdesay has held it for many years without re- 
ceiving holy orders, notwithstanding that Brice has the vicarage 
of Gamerin, in the diocese of Aberdeen, distant one hundred 
and sixty leagues from his birthplace, which he is ready to 


resign, and has papal provision of a canonry of Glasgow, with 
expectation of a prebend." Petitions, Vol. I. 1363. (Pope 
Urban V.) Granted Avignon, 15 Kal. Feb. 

" The university of Paris. On behalf of John de Trebrona, 
M.A., of the Scottish nation, for the canonry and prebend of 
Inchemacgrany in Dunkeld, value 6 merks, void by the death 
of Robert de Den, notwithstanding that he has provision of the 
church of Glenkaryn, in the diocese of Glasgow, of which he 
has not yet possession." 1364. Petitions, Vol. XL. (Pope 
Urban V.) Granted Avignon, 4 Kal. May. 

"William de Trebron, M.A., bachelor of theology of the 
third year, envoy from the king of France to the king of Scot- 
land. For a canonry of Glasgow, with expectation of a 
prebend, notwithstanding that he has the church of Glenkarne, 
in the same diocese, value 20/, which he is ready to resign." 
1378. Petitions. (Clement VII., Anti-Pope.) From the Roll 
of the University of Paris. Granted Fondi, 3 Kal. Dec. 

(The Roll of Masters of the College of the Sorbonne, Paris, 
describes him as "priest," and "prior in the Sorbonne," and 
gives the date 11 Kal. Dec.) 

" William de Glendonvin, of the diocese of Glasgow, M.A., 
bachelor of canon law, kinsman of Simon de Mundavilla. For 
the archdeaconry of Glasgow and annexed prebend, value 200/, 
void by the death of Simon de Mundavilla at the Roman court, 
notwithstanding that he has the church of Glencarn, in the said 
diocese, and the canonry and prebend of Renfrew in the same, 
value together 140/. He is ready to resign the canonry and 
prebend." 1409. Petitions. (Benedict XIII., Anti-Pope.) 
Granted a disposition to William to hold the archdeaconry, 
together with the said church. Barcelona, 3 Id. Nov. an 16. 

" To William de Glendonwyne, rector of Glencarne in the 
diocese of Glasgow, licentiate of civil law. Dispensation to 
him (who is licentiate of civil law by examination, M.A., and 


bachelor of canon law, and is of noble birth, and holds besides 
Glencarne, Aberdeen and Tours, value together not exceeding 
80 sterling) to hold for life together with the said church any 
other benefice with cure, etc., as before, f. 11, mutatis mutandis. 
Nobilitas generis, litterarum, etc." 1423. (Martin V.) 2 
Non. Jan. St. Peter's, Rome. 

In the fifteenth century the church of Glencairn was 
granted to the chapter of Glasgow by Bishop Turnbull. 
Chalmers in his Caledonia says : " The gratitude of dean 
Myrton and the chapter, erected in 1450, a chaplainry at the 
altar of St. Catherine in the church of Glasgow, with a stipend 
of .10 yearly from the revenues of the parish church of Glen- 
cairn, to the chaplain, whose duty it should be to pray for 
bishop Turnbull, his father and mother, and for his predecessors 
and successors (Chart. Glasgow)." 

At this period, and even for some considerable time prior 
to it, the Church in Scotland had become completely sub- 
servient to the Church of Rome. Taylor, writing of the 
religious condition of the people towards the close of the 
fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century, says: 
" The notions and usages prevalent in Scotland at this period 
were not of an enlightened or elevating character. The virtue 
of the mass, and of the relics of saints, the adoration of images 
and of the cross, the efficacy of indulgences and the importance 
of confession, of processions, and of pilgrimages, were zealously 
inculcated by the priests, and credulously believed by the 
people." "Immense numbers of pilgrims," he says, " travelled 
to the various shrines of saints and martyrs, not only in 
Scotland and England but even on the Continent," and he 
quotes a contemporary writer to prove that the motive of such 
pilgrimages was "worldly and fleshly," rather than "to have 
friendship of God and of his saints in heaven." In Scotland 
the most noted place of pilgrimage appears to have been Whit- 


horn, in Galloway. Thither journeyed James IV., by way of 
Glencairn, in 1508, and the books of the " Lord High 
Treasurer " furnish us with details of some curious outlays 
that were incurred in the course of the journey. The King 
entered Glencairn by way of the Cloan pass, the only depression 
in the range of hills by which it is possible to cross with comfort 
from Nithsdale into the valley of the Cairn, and he appears to 
have rested at Penpont, and again at "Castell Fern " (Castle- 
fairn), in Glencairn. It is at the latter place that the following 
outlay is recorded : " Item, for ane sark to the French boy, 
vs." Among other curious payments we find: "Item, to ane 
woman that sang to the King, xxvii.s." "Item, for soling of 
ane pair schune to the King, xv.d." 

We can imagine the stir that the passing of the King's 
gay cavalcade would create in the quiet valley of the Cairn. 
No doubt tokens of loyalty and even of affection were forth- 
coming, and we may well believe that with these the King was 
well pleased. But it is not for long that we are permitted to 
linger over the picture. Five short years later the genial but 
unfortunate monarch had to "dree his weird" on Flodden's 
fatal field. 

During the reign of James V. the principles of the Reforma- 
tion, championed by William, Earl of Glencairn, his son 
Alexander (Lord Kilmaurs), Henry Balnaves, and other zealous 
Reformers, made rapid progress. Alarm seized the Popish 
Church. On the one hand, the statutes against heresy were 
made more severe ; on the other, the clergy were enjoined " to 
reform themselves, their obedienciaries, and kirkmen under 
them, in habit and manner to God and man." The attempt at 
reform from within may have been well meant, but it came too 
late. On the 19th of August, 1560, the Estates ratified the new 
Confession drawn up by the Reformers, and on the 24th they 
abolished in all time coming the Pope's authority within the 
realm of Scotland, 


For many years after the Reformation there was a great 
scarcity of ministers throughout Scotland. "Kirks," we are 
told, "lacked ministers, and ministers lacked stipends." In 
the emergency readers and exhorters were appointed in many 
parishes, and it is on record that Glencairn was supplied by 
John Jamieson, "exhorter," in 1567. We learn, further, from 
a royal warrant dated 21st of October, 1578, which is pre- 
served in the Records of the Sheriff Court of Dumfries, that 
the stipend paid to the " unplacit Reidar ' ' at Glencairn was " 20 
ilk yeir " = 1 13s 4d sterling. A reader was required to read 
the Scriptures in the Church morning and evening, and to offer 
up the public prayers contained in the Book of Common Order, 
but he was forbidden to administer the rite of Baptism, or per- 
form the Marriage ceremony, or celebrate the Communion. 
Readers of approven capacity were frequently admitted to the 
office of the ministry. The succession of fully ordained ministers 
from 1574 onwards is as follows: 1 

1574. James Betoun, fourth son of John Betoun, of Balfour, 
Dunscore and Holywood having been also in his charge. 

1579. James Maxwell, formerly of Lochmaben, Reader at 
Traqueir in 1578; he continued 3rd March, 1584, and 
was presented to the Vicarage Pensionary of Haliwod by 
James VI., 29th Jany., 1582. 

1586. William Tailzer (or Tailzeour), a convert from Popery. 
He was translated from Penpont, continued in 1588, and 
was afterwards translated to Tynron. 

1, Scott's Fasti Ecdesia: Scoticance, 


1589. John Broune, A.M., studied at St. Salvator's College, 
and had his degree from the University of St. Andrews 
10th December, 1586; he continued 14th Jany., 1643. 

1632. William Brown, A.M., probably son of the preceding, 
was laureated at the University of Edinburgh 27th July, 
1622. He married Marione Corsane, who survived him, 
and had a son John, who succeeded him in the lands of 
Inglistoun, and was served heir 2nd July, 1656. By his 
last will, dated 27th October, 1636, he left " to the man- 
tenanse of ane scoole at the Kirk 100 merks." 

1653. James Brotherstone, A.M., attained his degree at the 
University of Edinburgh 15th April, 1645; was deprived 
by the Acts of Parliament llth June and 1st October, 
1662; and died before 26th May, 1679. 

1665. George Hunter, A.M., was laureated at the University 
of Glasgow in 1651; ousted by the people in 1689; and 
died 25th Jany., 1697, aged about 66. 

1692. George Boyd, A.M., graduated at the University of 
Edinburgh 30th April, 1689; was called in August, 1691, 
and ordained 1st February, succeeding; demitted 30th 
October, 1700. 

1704. John Pollock studied at the University of Glasgow, and 
had a bursary of theology 28th October, 1695; was 
licensed by the Presbytery there 29th January, 1701 ; 
called 4th April, and ordained 26th May, 1704; he 
demitted, having been called to Roxburgh, 1718. 

1719. Robert Jardine, translated from Cummertrees, called 
23rd July, admitted 5th November following; translated 
to Lochmaben 10th October, 1732. (The dates have 
been obtained from the Kirk-Session Records of Glen- 
cairn. No dates are given in Scott's Fasti.) 

1733. William Moodie, called 28th February, and ordained 
26th April; died 23rd January, 1772, in his 72nd year 
and the 39th of his ministry. 


1774. William Grierson, son of a small farmer in the parish of 
Kirkpatrick-Fleming, where he was born 3rd May, 1733, 
studied and had a gift of a bursary from the Exchequer 
20th July, 1749, at the University of Edinburgh; became 
tutor successively in three different families ; was licensed 
in May, 1758; he was assistant successively in Tinwald, 
Moffat, Inch, and Kirkcudbright parishes; called to the 
Scottish congregation at Dort, and ordained by the 
Presbytery of Kirkcudbright 4th August, 1763; trans- 
lated to the English Presbyterian Church, Amsterdam, 
in 1765; presented to this parish by Charles, Duke of 
Queensberry and Dover, 16th May, 1772; admitted 3rd 
November, 1774 ; died 31st May, 1803, in his 71st year 
and the 40th of his ministry. 

1804. John Brown, son of William Brown, tailor, Dundrivan, 
parish of Douglas. Born 6th January, 1752; licensed by 
the Presbytery 1st July, 1778; presented by William, 
Duke of Queensberry, in November, 1803, and ordained 
26th April thereafter; died 27th February, 1837, in his 
86th year and the 33rd of his ministry. 

1837. Patrick Borrowman, licensed by the Presbytery of Meigle 
31st August, 1836; presented by Walter Francis, Duke 
of Buccleuch and Queensberry, in June, and ordained 
25th August, 1837. Demitted at the Disruption in 1843. 

1843. John Park, translated from Liverpool; translated to St. 
Andrews in 1854. 

1855. ..William Burnside Dunbar, translated from Westerkirk. 

1864. Robert Hume, assistant and successor, translated to 

1869. John Monteith studied at the University of Glasgow. 
Became assistant at Kilbarchan, Renfrewshire, whence 
he was called in 1867 to the Barony Chapel, Glasgow, 
under the late Rev. Dr Norman Macleod. Was ordained 


minister of Glencairn 1st July, 1869. Died 20th 
February, 1886. 

1886. Patrick Macdonald Playfair, M.A., (now D.D.), trans- 
lated to St. Andrews, 1899. 

1900. George G. D. S. Duncan, M.A., B.D., translated to 
Inveresk, May, 1907. 

1907. Charles William Gray Taylor, M.A. 

"At the Reformation," says Chalmers in his Caledonia 
(Vol. v., p. 166, 1890 ed.), " the tithes of the Church of Glen- 
cairn were let by the chapter of Glasgow to William Fergusson 
of Craigdarroch and other parishioners for payment of 400 
merks yearly, of which nothing has been paid for four years 
then passed, when the rental of the chapter of Glasgow was 
given up, in 1562, as we learn from the rental book. To the 
church of Glencairn there belonged many lands, a part whereof 
were appropriated to the vicar. After the Reformation the 
whole passed into lay hands. The patronage and tithes of the 
church of Glencairn were vested in the King in 1587. They 
were granted in January, 1591-2, to Sir James Douglas of 
Drumlanrig, in whose family they continued. On the death of 
William, Duke of Queensberry, in 1810, the patronage of the 
church of Glencairn went to the Duke of Buccleuch and Queens- 

The old parish church of Glencairn was in use till 1836. 
Externally it measured one hundred and ten feet in length by 
twenty -nine feet in width. The disproportionate length is ex- 
plained by the fact that a school was accommodated under the 
same roof. Two gable walls, overgrown with ivy, are the only 
portions of the building now standing. These walls measure no 
less than six feet in thickness. A bell, which hung on the eastern 
gable, was removed to the new church in 1836. The inscription 
on this interesting relic is as follows : " SOLI DEO GLORIA, 
Charles Hog, Glencarn, 1611. John Taylor, Whitehaven, made 



me 1789." This probably means that the bell was originally 
made in 1611, but was re-cast by John Taylor, of Whitehaven, in 
1789. No references to the re-casting of the bell are to be 
found in the Kirk-Session Records, but in the Kirk Treasurer's 
book, afterwards referred to, certain interesting details con- 
nected with the bell appear under dates June 15th and Novem- 
ber 12th, 1789, June 29th, 1791, and April 27th, 1794; and 
these entries go far to establish what we have stated. An aged 


parishioner says that the old church was an extremely plain 
building. It was entered by a low arched doorway facing south, 
and had one or two steps down into the interior. The floor was 
of earth, and in some places very uneven. A moderately wide 
passage ran throughout the church. The pulpit was placed 
against the south wall, and a low gallery occupied each end of 
the building. We learn from the Records of the Penpont 
Presbytery that in 1742 the door of the church was changed 
from the north to the south side of the building. Two other 
doors, described as " East " and "West " doors, are mentioned. 
The dimensions of the passages with which they communicated 
7 feet in length and 3 feet 7 inches in breadth imply that 
they were connected with the two galleries, entrance to which is 
said to have been obtained by means of outside stairs. Simul- 
taneously with the change in the position of the principal door 
of the church, a new window was opened in the west "gavel " 
and an existing window enlarged. The only other fact respect- 
ing the church that we have been able to glean, is that a passage 


in the area was paved with small white stones. A former grave- 
digger directed our attention to the existence of this pavement, 
but we have had no opportunity of ascertaining the extent or 
character of the work. 

The churchyard was greatly enlarged by the Heritors in 
1870-71. It has since been handed over to the control of the 
Parish Council in accordance with Section 30 (6) of the Local 
Government (Scotland) Act, 1894. Even in the older portion 
of the churchyard comparatively few monuments of historic 
interest are to be found. The earliest date that can be de- 
ciphered on any of the stones is 1637. There are fragments of 
stones that may be older, but their history is unknown. One 
interesting fragment has been built into the wall that separates 
the churchyard from the manse garden. It measures thirty-four 
inches in length by twenty-two inches in depth, and is 
inscribed : 






The present parish church, dedicated like its predecessors 
to Saint Cuthbert, was built upon a portion of the glebe, im- 
mediately adjoining the churchyard, in 1836. The design was 
by Mr M'Candlish, Dairy, and the cost amounted to close upon 
2000. Although placed near the centre of the parish, it is 
about two miles distant from Moniaive, the principal centre of 
population. To obviate the many inconveniences arising from 
this, an additional church, now named Saint Ninian's, was 
erected in the village of Moniaive in 1887. Both churches have 
recently undergone important structural improvements. In 
1902 extensive internal changes were made in St. Cuthbert's in 
connection with the introduction of a pipe organ, and in 1906 


St. Ninian's was greatly improved in appearance, both extern- 
ally and internally, by the addition of Gothic windows. 

The old manse of the parish, built from a plan dated 1775, 
is now occupied as a dwelling-house under the name "Cairnside." 
The new manse was erected in 1840, according to a plan pre- 
pared by Mr Walter Newall, Architect, Dumfries. It is built 
on a low ridge facing south, and overlooks a beautiful reach of 
the Cairn river. It has been called the queen of Scottish 


This congregation was first organised in connection with 
the General Associate Synod under the designation " The 
United Congregation of Glencairn and Closeburn," afterwards 
changed to " The United Congregation of Moniaive and Thorn- 
hill." The first church was built on the farm of Kirkcudbright 
at a point, still marked by several ash trees, on the old line of 
roadway from Moniaive into Galloway. In 1800 the congrega- 
tion built a new church on a site within the village of Moniaive. 
This second church was replaced in 1834 by a third church, built 
on the same site. While the new church was in course of 
erection the congregation worshipped in the old parish church 
of Glencairn. 


It may be of interest to mention that the original lead com- 
munion tokens, issued in 1778, are still used by the Moniaive 
congregation. The tokens are in the form of an irregular 


octagon, and bear the inscription, " Minnihive Assoc. Con. Mr 
I. P., (the initials of James Pattison, first minister), 1778." 
In the other two congregations of the parish the metal token has 
now been superseded by a printed card. 

The following are the names of the ministers : 
1778. James Pattison, ordained 30th July, 1778; translated to 

Thornhill at the disjunction of the two congregations in 


1805. James France, ordained 22nd August, 1805. 
1817. James M'Geoch, ordained 26th August, 1817. 
1849. Robert Berwick, ordained 26th June, 1849; demitted 

May, 1863. 
1864. Alexander W. Donaldson, B.A., ordained 25th October, 

1864; translated to Strathaven 1870. 
1871. Thomas Kidd, M.A., ordained 31st October, 1871. 



The Free Church of Glencairn originated at the Disruption. 
The Rev. Patrick Borrowman, minister of the parish, warmly 
espoused the cause of the Evangelicals, and he was among those 
who signed the Protest and Deed of Demission on the 18th of 
May, 1843. With him no fewer than 531 persons in full com- 
munion left the Church of Scotland. This was no hasty de- 
cision. At a largely attended meeting held in the manse, a 
month prior to the sitting of the famous Assembly in Edin- 
burgh, it was solemnly and deliberately resolved to appoint a 
committee " to look out a site for a new church, acquire titles to 
the same, and generally to transact all business connected with 
the Free Protesting Church. ' ; 

The first service after the Disruption was held in the open 
air in a field near Broomfield. Accommodation, for worship 
was subsequently afforded by the managers of the United 


Secession Church in Moniaive, the Free Church congregation 
assembling at two o'clock in the afternoon. Meanwhile the 
committee appointed to look out a site for a new church had 
not been idle. A field belonging to Mr Hepburn, Dunreggan, 
was selected, and as negotiations proved satisfactory, building 
operations were at once begun. So expeditiously was the work 
carried out that by December, 1843, the church was available 
for public worship. A tablet setting forth the occasion of its 
erection was inserted in the front wall of the building. The 
inscription on this tablet is as follows : " The people of Glen- 
cairn, aided by the Central Fund, built this house for the wor- 
ship of God, when for adhering to her old standards and the 
testimony of the martyrs on behalf of Christ as King of 
Zion, the Church of Scotland was severed from the State. 
MDCCCXLIII. Patrick Borrowman, minister." The erection 
of a manse and of a school successively claimed attention, and 
in a short time the congregation had the satisfaction of seeing 
both schemes crowned with success. 

Naturally, much embittered feeling lingered in the wake of 
the Disruption, but with the rise of a new generation this has 
entirely disappeared, and there is now cordial co-operation 
between members of the different communions in all matters 
affecting the well-being of the parish and district. 

In 1888 important structural improvements were effected 
upon the first Free Church at a cost of 800. During recent 
years the beauty of the building has been further enhanced by 
the addition of three stained-glass windows, the gift of the late 
Robert Mackill, Glasgow ; and a handsome Estey organ, gifted 
to the congregation by Mr and Mrs MacRae of Stenhouse, in 
May, 1900. More recently a bronze bust to the memory of the 
Rev. Patrick Borrowman, modelled by James Paterson Esq., 


A.R.S.A., has been inserted in the vestibule of the church. It 
bears the inscription: 

Born 1813. 
Ordained 1837. 
Died 1899. 




In affectionate memory of the Reverend Patrick Borrowman, 

first minister of the Free Church of Scotland in Glencairn. 

MCM: A.D. 

In March, 1893, the old Free Church school in Ayr Street 
was purchased back from the School Board by an anonymous 
friend, and presented to the congregation for use as a hall, a 
purpose which it has amply fulfilled. 


1843. Patrick Borrowman, ordained 1837; died 1899. 

1886. John Telfer, colleague and successor, ordained Novem- 

ber, 1886; translated to Lyon Street F.C., Glasgow, 

1891. David Fyffe, M.A., colleague and successor, ordained 

July, 1891 ; translated to Fairfield English Presbyterian 

Church, Liverpool, 1896. 
1896. Robert G. Philip, M.A., colleague and successor, 

ordained 10th September, 1896. 


Since the union of the two non-Established Churches in 
1900, Glencairn Free Church has become known as Glencairn 
United Free Church, and Moniaive United Presbyterian Church 
as Moniaive United Free Church. Both congregations are 
within the Presbytery of Dumfries and Penpont, and the Synod 
of Dumfries and Galloway. 



Although the annals of Glencairn are mostly of the quiet 
and unassuming kind, such as naturally belong to a district far 
removed from the great centres of life, we have now to speak 
of a period in which Glencairn was called upon to play a part 
that has earned for her a distinctive and honoured place in the 
national annals. We need scarcely say that we refer to the 
period of that great struggle for civil and religious liberty which 
culminated in the Revolution of 1688. 

In 1662 the Prelatic party, in their efforts to impose 
Episcopacy upon Scotland, issued a proclamation banishing from 
their parishes all ministers that had not received a presenta- 
tion from the bishops of the diocese. Between three and four 
hundred ministers, of whom James Brotherstone, minister of 
Glencairn, was one, resigned their livings rather than submit to 
this enactment. To fill the empty pulpits an army of raw 
recruits called curates was enrolled, but the great body of the 
people refused to attend upon the ministrations of these 
intruders, and the parish churches were almost deserted. At 
this juncture some of the ejected ministers opened their houses 
for worship, and the privilege was so largely taken advantage of 
that it became necessary to meet in the fields. This was the 
beginning of the open-air meetings, called conventicles, which 
were destined to become so famous in Covenanting history. An 
Act was immediately passed providing that all ministers preach- 
ing without the sanction of the bishops should be punished for 
sedition, and that certain pains and penalties should be inflicted 
on those who absented themselves from their parish church. 
In 1662 the fines levied for nonconformity in the county of 
Dumfries alone amounted to 164,200 Scots. Of this sum no 


less than 3600 was exacted from John Laurie of Maxwelton, 
Glencairn. These and other tyrannical enactments stung the 
Covenanters beyond endurance. It was in Dairy, a neighbour- 
ing parish to Glencairn, that the storm first broke. A small 
company of Turner's dragoons, quartered in what was then 
called the Clachan of Dairy, had seized an old man named 
Grier, and were threatening to roast him on a gridiron because 
he could not pay his church fines. 1 Certain sympathisers inter- 
fered, with the result that four dragoons were made prisoners. 
News of this exploit soon reached Balmaclellan, where a larger 
number of Covenanters seized sixteen more of Sir James 
Turner's men. The contagion rapidly spread, and it was 
resolved to proceed to Dumfries for the purpose of seizing 
Turner himself. On the morning of Thursday, 15th November, 
1666, this bold project was carried into execution. The insur- 
gents, with Turner a prisoner in their hands, returned from 
Dumfries by way of Glencairn Kirk and Castlefairn, at both of 
which places they rested for refreshment, and on the following 
day they re-entered Dairy. Even the more moderate of the 
party now saw that they had gone too far to turn back. It 
was accordingly resolved to march upon Edinburgh. The 
disastrous ending of the ill-starred enterprise is matter of 
history. Pelted by wind and rain, weary with marching, and 
disheartened by defections at the moment of attack, they were 
offered battle on the 28th November, at a spot called Rullion 
Green, on the side of the Pentlands, near Edinburgh, and after 
a gallant resistance were put to the rout. Many surrendered on 
receiving a promise that their lives would be spared, but the 
scaffold was at once set up and the grim work of death begun. 
According to the Records of the Justiciary Courts, ten were 
hanged in Edinburgh on the 7th December, 1666, six on the 
14th, and nine on the 22nd, and in the same month four were 

1. Wodrow, 


hanged in Glasgow, and twelve in Ayr and Dumfries. In the 
following August a still larger number of absent men were 
found guilty of taking part in the rising, and were sentenced to 
be hanged whenever they were found, and all their property 
was confiscated. 

The years of systematic oppression that followed are among 
the darkest in Scottish history. "No part of modern history," 
says the historian Hallam, " can be compared for the wickedness 
of government to the Scots administration of this reign." 
Towards the close of December, 1678, John Graham of Claver- 
house was sent into Dumfriesshire to punish all disorders and 
church irregularities throughout the disaffected districts. He 
was a man well-fitted for the task. Early in 1681 he wrote from 
New-Galloway : 

" The country hereabouts is in great dread. Upon our 
march yesterday .most men were fled, not knowing against whom 
we designed. . . . My humble opinion is that it should be 
unlawful for the donators to compound with anybody for behoof 
of the rebel till once he hath made his peace. For I would 
have all footing in this country taken from them that will stand 
out. And for securing the rents to the donators and the Crown, 
it is absolutely necessary there be a fixed garrison in Kenmure, 
instead of Dumfries ; for without it, I am now fully convinced, 
we can never secure the peace of this country, nor hunt these 
rogues from their haunts. ... I sent yesterday two parties 
in search of those men your lordship gave me a list of one of 
them to a burial in the Glencairn, the other to the fair at 
Thornhill. Neither of them are yet returned: but Stenhouse 
(Colonel James Douglas, brother of the Duke of Queensberry) 
tells me that the party at the burial miscarried; that he 
pointed out to them one of the men, and they took another for 
him, though I had chosen a man to command the party that was 
born hereabouts. They shall not stay in this country but I 
shall have them." 


In Glencairn Claverhouse's chief coadjutors in the work of 
repression were Sir Robert Grierson of Lag, Sir Robert Laurie 
of Maxwelton, and Colonel James Douglas, Stenhouse. Of 
their activity and zeal our hillsides, unhappily, afford witness 
that is only too eloquent. 



This stone, a rough block of whinstone, with the name 
"W. Smith" rudely inscribed upon it, lies on ground that 
was formerly part of " Minnyhive Moss," or, as it is else- 
where called, the " Race-rrruir. " According to tradition it 
marks the spot where William Smith fell when he was shot by 
order of Douglas of Stenhouse and Laurie of Maxwelton. 
The martyr's final resting place is to be found in Tynron 
Churchyard, where a flat stone raised on supports bears the 
inscription : 


1. Now gardener's house, Crawfordton. 2. 


Also, at right angles to the foregoing : 

t* ^ O O O -i" 1 

^ i_!^ O O LJ ^ 
h^ nn j_^j ;*^ ^3 

* . tT h^ J t^ 

t=j CO 33 ^ 

- s 


" M <! 

cj d g 
oj 02 a ^ 

o or 3 


This inscription, like many more of its class, is poor enough 
doggerel, but, as some one has said, "The doggerel of heroes 
must always command the respect of ordinary men." The 
statement that burial was refused is borne out by tradition, and 
attests the insatiable cruelty of the times. 1 

1. See also A Cloud of Witnesses, edited by the Rev. John H. Thomson, 
Edinburgh, 1871. p. 551, 



The stone at Ingleston is hewn, but unpretentious in 
character. It measures two feet seven inches in height by two 
feet nine inches in breadth, and is inscribed : 


The story of the death of these men is sickening in its brutality. 
One Andrew Watson, an informer, having got wind of their 
retreat, sold his information to the authorities, who forthwith 
deputed Colonel James Douglas and Lieutenant Livingstone to 
surprise the fugitives. Their cave or " hidie-hole " was accord- 
ingly surrounded, and the whole five made prisoners. It is 
said that the soldiers shot in on the cave, wounded one, and 
then rushed in. Without any examination or the slightest form 
of trial, Colonel Douglas ordered them to be shot. John 
Gibson was the first to suffer. According to Wodrow, " his sister 
got in to him by the compassion of some of the soldiers." 1 
His mother, too, managed to get to him, and he charged her 
not to give way to grief, but to bless the Lord upon his account, 
who had made him both willing and ready to suffer for His 
cause and interest. After singing part of Ps. xvii., and engaging 
in prayer, he was dispatched. An effort was then made to dis- 
pose of the others all at once. The volley killed three of their 
number, while the fourth was left sorely wounded but conscious. 
One Ferguson, a renegade, observing this drew his sword and 
thrust him through the body fit climax to a tragedy which for 

1. Su/eringa, Vol. IV., p. 243, 


cold-blooded cruelty is almost without a parallel in Covenanting 


The stones commemorate the men who died at Ingleston, 
and are four in number. One of them being a replica, it is of 
three only that we require to speak. 



CY APR : 28 : 1685 REV. 
12: 11 

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1685 REV. 12 : 11. 

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28 . 1685. REV. 12. 11. 

Robert Grierson, the remaining sufferer at Ingleston, 
belonged to the parish of Balmaclellan, and in the churchyard 
there a fitting monument has been reared to his memory. 


Although the resting-place of James Renwick is in the 
north-east corner of Greyfriars' Churchyard, Edinburgh, his 
name has never ceased to be regarded with peculiar veneration 
in Glencairn, the parish of his birth, and in 1828 a handsome 
monument was erected to his memory on a commanding position 
on the farm of Neise. The monument bears the inscription : 




the last who 
Suffered to Death 

Attachment to the Covenanted Cause 



Near this Spot, 
15th Feby. 1662 ; 

and Executed 
at the Grassmarket, Edinburgh, 

- 17th Feby. 1688 - 

"The Righteous shall be in 

Everlasting Remembrance." 

^= Psal cxii. = 6 =- 

Erected by Subscription 


It is, however, not only by the number or the importance 
of the monuments in Glencairn, commemorative of the martyrs, 
that we learn the extent to which the parish was identified with 
the struggle for civil and religious liberty in Scotland. History 
has also preserved the names of many who bore faithful witness 
in other parts of the country; who suffered banishment; who 
were subjected to fines and penalties ; or who endured hardships 


and extremities rather than imperil the safety of loved ones, or 

the triumph of the cause they held dear. 

1662. Wm. Ferguson, Ketloch, fined 1000 Scots and forfeited 

in life and goods. 

Jas. Hunter, Townhead, fined 600 Scots. 
Jno. Laurie of Maxwelston fined 3600 Scots. 
James Brotherstone, minister of Glencairn, deprived of 
Church living. 

1679. Nine Covenanters from Glencairn, who had fought at 
Bothwell Brig, condemned to banishment. Five of the 
number David Mackervail, John Ferguson, Robert 
Milligan, James Colvil, and Thomas Rosper were 
drowned by shipwreck near Orkney. The fate of the 
remaining four, who escaped John Milligan, John 
Murdoch, John Smith, and William Fergusson is 

1680. John Gibson, in Auchenchain, forfeited in life and goods. 
Gibson, younger of Ingleston, forfeited in life and 

William Grierson of Loch Urr, who was condemned to 

death, but had sentence commuted to imprisonment. 
1684. Fugitive rebels at the horn 1 : 
Archibald Hunter in Terreran. 
Dr John Corsan, Gapsmill. 
Alexander Muirhead, Glencorse. 
James Corsan, Jedburgh. 
William Corsan, Jedburgh. 
William Harris, Kirkcudbright. 
Alexander M'Cubin in Marwhan. 
Robert Ferguson, Ketloch. 
John Grier, Glencairn. 

1. It was long the custom to use the horn for public proclamations, and 
these men would doubtless be proclaimed outlaws by a legally empowered 
Messenger at the Mercat Cross, Dumfries. 


William Wilson, Burnfoot. 
Thomas M'Murdy, Barbuy. 
William Ferguson, Threerigs. 
Robert Cunningham, Ketloch. 
John Gibson in Ingleston. 
Robert M'Ewan, tailor in Creichan. 
James Crosbie, Glencairn Kirk. 
John Matthison, in Shankerton. 
John Ker, in Monygryle. 
1685. Andrew Ferguson of Glencairn, imprisoned in Glasgow, 

who died of disease. 
Elizabeth Hunter, lady of Caitloch, exiled to Holland, 

where she died. 

1684. James Macmichael, shot by Claverhouse. 
Robert Smith, executed in Kirkcudbright. 

Samuel M'Ewan, Glencairn, hanged in the Grassmarket. 

1685. William Heron, Glencairn, shot at Lochenkit. 
Alexander M'Cubin, Glencairn, hanged at Irongray. 
Daniel M'Michael, Glencairn, shot at Dalveen. 


Although the outstanding incidents in the life of James 
Renwick are well known, we must needs linger for a little over 
the career of one who has shed such undying lustre on the 

James Renwick was born in a cottage on the lands of Neise, 
near Moniaive, on the 15th day of February, 1662. No trace 
of the cottage itself remains, but an aged gean tree is said to 
occupy what was once a corner of the garden plot, and almost 
within living memory some of the gooseberry bushes still 
occupied the ground. The cottage was, no doubt, one of 
several which, tradition tells us, stood near the old line of road- 
way on the side of the Schlenders Hill (see Place-names, p. 16). 

His father, Andrew Renwick, a weaver by trade, and his 


mother, Elizabeth Corsan, were both persons of fervent piety. 
Several of their children had died in infancy, and James, we are 
told, was the child of many prayers. In 1676 Andrew Renwick 
died. By the assistance of kind friends the widowed mother 
was enabled to send her boy to the University of Edinburgh. 
His college course was marked by great diligence, and " he was 
one of twenty-six students who, in the summer of 1681, publicly 
took their degrees." 1 

On 27th July, in the same year, Renwick was an eye- 
witness of the execution of Donald Cargill, and from that time 
his mind seems to have been made up to throw in his lot with 
those who were fighting the battle of civil and religious liberty. 

He continued in Edinburgh for some time after his laurea- 
tion, frequenting the meetings of the United Societies, formed 
for mutual protection and advice, and holding fellowship with 
the non-conformist ministers and others who attended such 
gatherings. Towards the close of 1682, he was selected by the 
United Societies as a worthy candidate for the ministry, and 
sent to complete his studies at the University of Groningen, in 
Holland. Having shown " approven proficiency," he was 
ordained by the "Classis " or Presbytery of Groningen on the 
10th May, 1683. His thoughts now turned to his friends in 
Scotland. In a letter written about this time he says : " My 
longings and earnest desire to be in that land, and with that 
pleasant remnant, are very great. I cannot tell what may be 
in it, but I hope the Lord hath either some work to work, or 
else is minded presently to call for a testimony at my hand ; and 
if he give frame and furniture, I desire to welcome either of 

The opportunity soon came. Returning to Scotland in 
September, 1683, he was "called" with unanimity by the 
people, and on the 23rd day of November he began his public 

1. See The Covenanters, by James King Hewison. Vol. II., p. 414. 


ministry by preaching to a great gathering assembled at the 
Moss of Darmead, in the parish of Cambusnethan. 

The revival of field-preaching at this time was peculiarly 
distasteful to the Government. In the beginning of 1684 
Renwick was proclaimed a traitor and rebel, and in September 
of the same year Letters of Intercommuning (i.e., of civil ex- 
communication) were issued against him. " We command and 
charge all and sundry, our leiges and subjects," ran this bar- 
barous edict, " that they, nor none of them presume, nor take 
upon hand, to reset, supply or intercommune with the said Mr 
James Renwick, rebel foresaid; nor furnish him with meat, 
drink, house, harbour, victual, nor no other thing useful or 
comfortable to him; or to have intelligence with him by word, 
writ, or message, or any other manner of way whatsomever, 
under the pain of being esteemed art and part with him in the 
crimes foresaid, and pursued therefore with all rigor, to the 
terror of others. And we hereby require all our Sheriffs, etc., 
to apprehend and commit to prison, the person of the said Mr 
James Renwick, wherever they can find or apprehend him." 

The amount of work that he accomplished in the face 
of such opposition is amazing. During the first twelve months 
of his ministry he is said to have baptized no fewer than six 
hundred children, a record that is almost incredible when we 
think of the time that must have been required for preaching, 
for correspondence, and for catechising. Notwithstanding hard- 
ships and trials his faith never wavered. In one of his letters 
he says : " The Lord suffers not my work, however unsupport- 
able to flesh and blood, to be burdensome unto me, for, though 
the world think my case most miserable, yet I think it is so 
happy that I know not a man this day upon the face of the earth 
with whom I would exchange my lot." 

On the 28th May, 1685, three months after the accession 
of James, Duke of York, an avowed Papist, to the throne, 
Renwick, accompanied by about two hundred men, some of 


whom were, no doubt, drawn from our own parish, marched to 
the town of Sanquhar, and there, after praise and prayer, affixed 
to the Market Cross a declaration disowning James as King. 
At the moment this bold step did not attract the amount of 
attention that might have been expected, probably because the 
Government was fully occupied with an attack upon its authority 
from another quarter, but, in the following year, a reward of 
one hundred pounds sterling was offered to any one who should 
bring Renwick in dead or alive. It is sad to find that during 
those days of trial and persecution Renwick 's life was em- 
bittered by the calumnies of brethren who had separated from 
him. Even the Rev. Alexander Peden, his co-worker and 
friend, was temporarily estranged; but when Peden was 
lying on his death-bed he sent for Renwick, and taking 
him by the hand, he said : " I find you a faithful servant to 
your Master; go on in single dependence upon the Lord, and 
you will win honestly through and cleanly off the stage when 
many others that hold their head high will fall and lie in the 
mire, and make foul hands and garments." 

These persistent attempts at misrepresentation were the 
immediate occasion of the issue of what is known as the Inf orma- 
tory Vindication, a defensive document approved by the 
Societies at a general meeting held at Friarminion, in the early 
part of 1687. During a considerable part of this year Renwick 
was occupied in testifying against the Toleration, permitting men 
to worship in their own houses but forbidding them to do so 
in the open fields, proclaimed by James on 12th February, and 
also renewed with slight alterations in June and October. As 
the woeful effects of this ensnaring proclamation became more 
and more apparent, Renwick formed the resolution of proceed- 
ing to Edinburgh that he might place in the hands of the 
Moderator of the Presbytery a formal protest against the 
Toleration. During the journey to Edinburgh he proposed to 
preach at Peebles, but, his intention becoming known, he had 


to flee the town. A week later, however, he was able to preside 
at two conventicles on the Braid Hills under the very shadow of 
the capital. Other conventicles were held in Fife on the 22nd 
and 24th January, and at Bo 'ness on the 29th. On the 31st he 
returned to Edinburgh, where he lodged in the house of a friend, 
John Luckup by name, who lived in the Castlehill. That 
evening his voice was overheard in prayer and recognised. 
Next morning the house was surrounded. He essayed to escape 
by discharging a pistol over the heads of those who had come 
to take him, but after running a short distance in the direction 
of the Cowgate, he was seized and committed a close prisoner 
in irons to the Tolbooth. On the 8th February he was tried 
before the High Court of Justiciary on an indictment which 
charged him with disowning the King's authority, refusing to 
pay the cess, and maintaining the lawfulness of defensive arms. 

He objected to the terms of the indictment, but as " he 
openly and constantly adhered to all that he had said before," 
he was found guilty and condemned to be executed in the Grass- 
market, Edinburgh, on the 10th day of February. The date 
was afterwards altered to the 17th, but the delay was not of 
Renwick's seeking, for, when a reprieve was suggested to him, 
he answered that his Master's time was the best. In the 
interval between his sentence and his execution he was visited 
by many who tried to induce him to recant, but all their 
blandishments were in vain. He was likewise visited by his 
mother and sisters, and to them he talked composedly of his 
approaching death. " I have many times counted the cost of 
following Christ," he said, "but never expected it would have 
been so easy. . . . Now I am near the end of time. I 
desire to bless the Lord; it is inexpressibly sweet and satisfying 
peace to me that He hath kept me from complying in the least 
with enemies." 

On the morning of the 17th he was led forth to execution. 
1. Shields' Life of Renwick, p. 136. 


Around the scaffold a great multitude had assembled. The 
authorities, well knowing how anxious the people were to hear 
him speak, gave orders for the drums to beat while the awful 
tragedy was being enacted. Among the last words that were 
heard from his lips were these : " Lord, I die in the faith that 
Thou wilt not leave Scotland, but that Thou wilt make the 
blood of Thy Witnesses the seed of Thy Church, and return 
again and be glorious in our Land." 

Honour to the memory of the Covenanters ! That they 
were guilty of excesses no one who is not blinded by prejudice 
will be disposed altogether to deny. But when all has been 
said, their faults were trifling in comparison with their excel- 
lencies. When we remember that many of those who suffered 
were plain country people, nothing is more remarkable than the 
heights of true eloquence to which they attained. In his dying 
testimony Samuel M'Ewan, a Glencairn lad of seventeen, who 
was taken at Closeburn, and executed at Edinburgh August 
15th, 1684, spoke thus : " I am heartily content with my lot. It 
was my desire, though most unworthy, to die a martyr, and I 
bless the Lord who has granted me my desire. Now this is 
the most joyful day ever I saw with mine eyes. Farewell, all 
earthly enjoyments and friends, in our sweet Lord Jesus Christ ; 
and farewell, Glencairn, my native parish. Welcome, my sweet 
Saviour; into Thy hands I commit my spirit, for Thou art He, 
O Jehovah, God of Truth, who hast redeemed me." 1 The same 
cheerful and pious spirit was shown by Daniel M'Michael when 
shot at Dalveen. After the napkin had been put over his face 
he said, " Lord, Thou broughtest Daniel through many straits, 
and hast brought me, Thy servant, hither, to witness for Thee 
and Thy cause. Into Thy hands I commit my spirit, and hope 
to praise Thee through all eternity." 2 Glance now at Alexander 
M'Cubin, another of Glencairn 's peasant martyrs, and see how 

1. Wodrow, Vol. IV.. p. 69. 2. Wodrow, Vol. IV., p. 240. 


he bore himself at Irongray. An acquaintance asked him, 
when about to be hanged, if he had any word to send to his wife. 
" I leave her," he replied, "and the two babes upon the Lord, 
and to His promise; a Father to the fatherless, and Husband 
to the widow, is the Lord in His holy habitation." 1 Finally, 
think again of James Renwick, who perhaps more than any 
other embodied the genius of the Covenant. When the drums 
beat for the guard to take him to execution, he exclaimed joy- 
fully, "It is the welcome warning to my marriage; the Bride- 
groom is coming. I am ready. I am ready. . . . Lord, 
into Thy hands I commit my spirit, for Thou hast redeemed 
me, O God of truth." 2 

Thus the men that lived and died " for Christ's Crown and 
Covenant " have shed such lustre on the story of the parish 
that we recognise the fitness of the poet's words : 
" Hail, green Glencairn ! a glory is round ye, 
Land where our Covenant forefathers trod; 
Mist of the moorland ! my spirit hath found ye 
Bright with the smile of our Covenant God." 
On the 23rd December, 1688, James, fearful of the gathering 
storm which his misgovernment had induced, fled to the Conti- 
nent. A Convention met and declared that by his abuse of 
power he had forfeited the crown; and they proceeded to elect 
the Prince and Princess of Orange to the vacant throne. The 
restoration of Presbytery followed. At first it was impossible to 
find ministers for all the churches, and Presbyteries had difficulty 
in dealing with the numerous applications for supply. Among 
others who officiated in Glencairn at this time we find the names 
of Mr Gabriel Semple, of Kirkpatrick-Durham, and Mr John 
Hepburn, of Urr. 3 In 1692 the Rev. George Boyd, A.M., was 
inducted as minister of the parish, and the people, after long 
years of stress and turmoil, settled down to worship God accord- 
ing to approved Presbyterian rites and forms. 

1. Wodrow, Vol. IV., p. 240. 2. Wodrow, Vol. IV., p. 452. 
3. Dumfries Presbytery Records, 


The Kirk-Session Records of Glencairn date back to 1693, 
and afford some curious glimpses of the social and religious life 
of the parish. Nothing is more remarkable than the power of 
the Kirk-Session in all matters affecting Church order and 
morals. The procedure in cases of discipline seems to have 
been inquisitorial to a degree, and even harsh, although it should 
be remembered that the times were rough and called for decisive 
and thorough methods. Among the offences dealt with are: 
Adultery and Fornication, Irregular Marriages, Witchcraft, 
Drunkenness, Sabbath-breaking, Fast-day Desecration, Alter- 
ing of land marks, Speaking disrespectfully of Elders, Scold- 
ing, Cursing and Swearing. In a minute dated January 
28th, 1694, a parishioner is solemnly rebuked for " swearing at 
ye curling on ye ice." At the same sederunt John M'Conrick, 
in Tynron, is charged with " dryving ane cow on ye Sabath out 
of ye parish of Glencarne," and at a subsequent meeting the 
said John appears to answer for the offence. Two cases of 
reputed witchcraft are mentioned in the Records, the first under 
date "Apryl nynth," 1694, the second in a minute dated 14th 
Nov., 1707. The earlier case promises to be interesting, but, 
owing to a somewhat lengthy break in the Records 15th April, 
1694, to 1st June, 1701 curiosity remains ungratified. From 
a deliverance anent " Drinking in Ale-houses," dated 18th June, 
1704, we learn that "two elders per vices (in turn) were 
appointed to go amongst the Houses each Sabbath both fore- 
noon and afternoon to search if there be any keeping company 
and drinking in tyme of sermon." At the same diet the Church 
officer was instructed to cite four men and one woman to appear 
in answer to a charge of "scandalous drinking." 

From a minute of 21st June, 1702, we extract the 


following anent persons desiring to be proclaimed in order 
to marriage : " The Session considering that they are many 
times all slighted by either not laying doun the dollars or 
takeing cautionrie for them when persons are giveing up their 

names to be proclaimed in order to marriage (enacts?) 

therefore and Appoints that no proclamation henceforth be 
allowed in this paroch untill first one dollar at least be con- 
sign 'd to the Session or in the hands of any whom they shall 
appoint." On 4th February, 1705, we find the Session record- 
ing their disapproval of " vagrant persons and strangers coming 
from oyr places and takeing up there residence and abode in the 
paroch," and "people provyding themselves with servants " are 
enjoined not to allow servants and others under them the benefit 
of service and constant abode until first they produce certificates 
to the Session from the place of their former residence." 

Under date 27th May, 1722, we meet with the following 
curious entry anent pauper funerals : " The Session appoints to 
the funeral of each poor person within ye parish 4 pence for 
tobacco, 6 pence for pipes, 5 groats for ale." At a meeting held 
on January 4th, 1741, the straits of the poor, consequent upon a 
dearth of meal, engaged the attention of the Session. The 
minute reads : " The Session having taken into their considera- 
tion the present straits of the poor through the present dearth 
and the Meal -sellers either carrying it out of the Country or 
refusing to sell it in Small quantities as the poor can buy it, and 
having Draught of a Complaint to the Justices of the Peace laid 
before them they caused the same to be read, Approved yrof, 
and appointed their Modr. to subscribe it in their name, and 
present it to the Justices for their consideration." 

Valuable supplementary references to poor relief, and other 
matters of Sessional control, are contained in two small MS. 
volumes, which the writer of this short history was fortunate 
enough to discover among a miscellaneous collection of books 


recently sold by auction in the parish. The earlier of the two 
volumes covers a period of fifteen years 1783 to 1798 and 
is entitled Book of Collections of Glencairn. The second 
volume, although bearing a different title, is identical in charac- 
ter with the first. Both books are divided into three sections: 
(1) A record of Church-door collections; (2) An account of 
proclamations, fines, etc. ; (3) A statement of moneys disbursed 
to the poor and in payment of miscellaneous congregational 
expenses. 1 


The record of the collections seems to have been kept with 
scrupulous care and regularity. An unfortunate hiatus, indeed, 
occurs during the summer of 1792, but this is adequately ex- 
plained by the following statement : " From April 1st (to Novr. 
16th) no accounts kept by the clerk on account of his sickness 
and death." For so large a parish as Glencairn the amounts col- 
lected at the ordinary weekly services appear remarkably small. 
During the earlier period the maximum figure, where not aug- 
mented by special donations, is 13s, while the minimum is 8d. 
Fortunately special contributions from the well-to-do in the 
parish were by no means infrequent. Thus, under date May 
21st, 1786, we read: "Collection as augmented by Craig- 
darroch 1 8s 2d;" and on January 28th, 1789 :" Collection 
as augmented by Mrs Fergusson and Glen, (probably Mrs 
Fergusson of Craigdarroch and the laird of Glencrosh), 
1 Os 2d." During the later period similar entries are met 
with. Thus, " Octo. 29th, 1815, Collected, of which from Mr 
Walker, 1 Is Od, 1 18s Ojd;" " Jany. 5th, 1817, Collected, 
of which from Sir Robert Laurie per Jedburgh 1 Is Od, 
1 14s OJd." 

The outstanding feature, however, in connection with the 
Church-door collections is the phenomenal increase that 
1. The books were presented to the Kirk-Session of Glencairn in 1909, 


occurs at Communion seasons. During the 1783-98 period an 
average sum of close upon five pounds was collected, while 
during the 1808-19 period an average of between eight and nine 
pounds \vas reached. These figures, especially when compared 
with the ordinary collections, perhaps point to the fact that 
some followed the custom, always a regrettable one, of atten- 
dance only on such occasions. Still more, they are eloquent as 
to the popularity of the Communion services, and go far to 
prove that it was the custom in Glencairn, as elsewhere, for 
flocks of people to gather to the Sacrament from neighbouring 
parishes. While we are loth to believe that the abuses described 
by Burns in his " Holy Fair " existed to any considerable extent 
in our own midst, it must be admitted that a large influx of 
strangers at those seasons cannot have been conducive to that 
quiet which so well becomes religious exercises. 

In the record of the collections we find some interesting 
reflections of national events. For example : " April 23rd, 
1789 (a Thursday), Collected on the day of Thanksgiving for 
the King's recovery, 7/3$." " April 18, 1793, Collected on the 
King's Fast Day, 4s 5d Iqr. (4/51)." "March 6, 1796 (a 
Thursday), Collected on a National Fast, 3/7$." Passing to 
the strenuous years that culminated in the Battle of Waterloo, 
we find : 

Jany. 13, 1814. General Fast, 5/10$. 
May 15, 1814. Collected for the German sufferers, 14 14s Od, 

Septr. 3, 1815. -Collected for the Waterloo Fund, 21 Os Od, 

1 8s lOd. 

No doubt the sums 9s and 1 8s lOd represent the ordinary 
collections. We think it will be admitted that these special con- 
tributions are extremely creditable to -Glencairn. If anything like 
equal liberality was shown by other congregations throughout 
the country a substantial sum must have been available for the 


mitigation of suffering amongst our soldiers and their allies. 
It is pleasing to find, that notwithstanding these pressing calls 
the claims of deserving local institutions were not forgotten. 
Thus, under date July 9, 1797, we read: "Collected for 
Infirmary, 6 6s Od; For Poor, 6s lid 2qr. (6/11$);" and on 
Aug. 2nd, 1812 " No sermon. Minr. preaching for the In- 
firmary." Regular pulpit supply, if we may judge from the 
frequency with which " No sermon " entries occur, does not 
seem to have been a matter of serious concern to the Kirk- 
Session. As many as seven entries, on an average, are to be 
met with in the course of a single year. One curious entry of 
this class occurs under date Novr. 1, 1812: "No sermon. 
High Flood." As no flood, however high, could have pre- 
vented the attendance of any considerable number of people at 
the sanctuary, we are probably justified in concluding that it 
was the minister who was unable to reach the Church. We 
know that the manse was situated close to the river Cairn, and 
that it was liable to be surrounded by water when that stream 
was in flood. 


While the Church-door collections were of primary im- 
portance as a source of revenue, the sum derived from penalties 
levied on parties subjected to discipline must have formed a 
considerable asset. It is not a little startling to find that down 
to 1819 the latest date covered by these Records it was 
customary to punish by fine for the sin of fornication. The 
amount of the fine seems to have varied according to the heinous- 
ness of the offence, and the means that the parties implicated 
were supposed to have at their disposal. The lowest sum men- 
tioned is 2s 6d, the highest 5 ; while in one case what is called 
a " fine extraordinary " is recorded, the amount being 2 2s Od. 
Public appearance on the stool of repentance continued in force 
until 1831. Penalties were likewise exacted from parties marry- 


ing " out of church." Between September, 1793, and February, 
1794, four fines for this offence are mentioned, and they continue 
to appear, although less frequently, from 1794 onwards. The 
et cetera embraces such varied sources of income as special 
donations, interest on loans, sums realised from the sale of 
strayed sheep, and charges for the use of the mort-cloth. Some 
of the benefactions that appear in this section are of consider- 
able amount, and it is pleasing to notice that most of them are 
from proprietors in the parish. 

Octr. 16, 1790. Contributions from Cormilligan's 3 sons, 10/6. 
Novr. 14, 1790. Contributions from Capt. Riddel and Wm. 

[Burnet?], ll/. 
Apl. 10, 1795. Reed, from Sir Robt. Laurie a benefaction of 

Five guineas for the benefit of the poor in this parish. 
Apl. 22, 1795. Reed, by Tererran a benefaction of two guineas 

given by Mr Mosman. 
Aug. 25, 1811. From John Gibson of Glencrosh as a donation 

to the poor, by the late Mr Gilbt. Gibson, 10. 
July 10, 1812. From James Smith of Jedburgh the following 

donations to the poor: Left by his father, 10; Brother, 

10; Sister, 5 = 25. 
Novr. 26, 1815. From Terrarran bequeathed to the poor of 

this parish by the late Mr Gillespie of Peelton 5 being 

deducted for prop, tax 45. 
Deer. 18, 1815. From Mr Forbes for the poor per Terrarran, 

5 5s Od. 
Feby. 29, 1818. David Wallace of Fleughlarge donation 5. 

It will be seen from these extracts that the well-to-do in 
the parish were not unmindful of their less fortunate neighbours, 
and if this . was true of them as individuals it was likewise 
true in their corporate capacity, for, under date Aug. 30th, 
1818, we read : " From the Heritors as part of a voluntary 
assessment of 50 for the Poor, 10." Donations for behoof 


of the poor seem to have been customary both at Marriages and 
at Baptisms. The amounts are often small, but no respect of 
persons is shown, for full particulars are invariably given as to 
the date, the nature of the occasion, and the name of the donor. 


It is curious to find that the Kirk- Session conducted a very 
considerable business as money-changers. Reference is made 
to no fewer than nine bills or bonds due to the poor of Glen- 
cairn, and held by the Session on their behalf, upon which 
interest at the rate of 4 to 5 per cent, was paid annually. As 
the drawees in nearly every instance are landed proprietors, it 
may be inferred that the Session was careful to transact business 
only with those who could produce ample security. 

Another curious source of income is the sale of strayed 
sheep. The earliest entry of this kind is Novr. 14, 1790 
" From Terreran for a stray sheep, 2s." Except for the small- 
ness of the sum realised, this entry may be considered typical 
of its class. On subsequent dates such figures as 9s, 9s 9d, and 
13s are recorded. 

The only other source of income that calls for notice is the 
fees charged by the Kirk-Session for the use of the mort-cloth 
a plush or woollen cloth kept to be laid on the coffin prior to 
burial. The purchase of a cloth of this kind was authorised in 
1723, when the charge for its use was fixed at Is sterling from 
those residing within the parish, and Is 6d sterling from those 
residing without. The amount derived from the hire of the 
cloth cannot have been large, but it must have helped, in a small 
way, to maintain the proper equilibrium between income and 


The most important duty of the Kirk-Session was the care 
of the poor ; and the details given under the heading ' Expendi- 


ture ' are valuable as an index of the way in which that duty was 

performed : 

Feby. 13, 1795. Dibursed extraordinary to the poor on acct. of 

the inclemency of the season, 7 3s Od. 
May 29, 1796. To Barbara M'Lellan for her son to go to 

Moffat Well, 4s. 
July 10, 1796. To Margt. Smith, Dunreggan, for a distressed 

child to go to Moffat Well, 3s. 
Xovr. 19, 1808. To straw and labour for A. M'Turk's house, 

Aug. 8, 1812. | stone meal to the following persons (eight 

names) at 56 per stone. 

It would seem that alcoholic stimulants were rarely supplied 
to the poor. Only three payments are mentioned two for 
wine and one for gin making a modest total of 5/10 disbursed 
during a period of twenty-six years. Purchases of clothing 
material, such as " blew flannan," appear from time to time, and 
payments for "slicing cloggs " and "scaling shoes" are of 
frequent occurrence. Peat was evidently the staple fuel of the 
parish. Against three payments for coal there are twenty for 
peat, and it is noteworthy that the payments for coal do not 
begin to appear until towards the close of the period covered by 
the Records. A curious payment for fuel whether coal or peat 
is not stated occurs under date January 5, 1793 : " To William 
Collow for money laid out in behalf of the late Jean Hunter for 
fewel (sic) and a winding sheet, 5s." A hearse probably the 
first used in Glencairn was purchased in 1784; the sum of 
6 Is 8d having been paid in July of that year to " Will. Collow 
for the Hearse and for a receipt." Five years later the parish 
was in possession of a new Church bell. The cost of the bell 
and its erection is detailed as follows: 
June 15, 1789. To the Church Bell, 9 Os Od. 
Novr. 12, 1789. To Wm. M'Aul, Smith, and Willm. Collow, 


Wright, for acct. for the Heritors for work at putting up 
the Kirk Bell, 1 Is 3Jd. 

June 29th, 1791. Sum of Receivings, besides collections, since 
last Deal, To which add, repaid by the Heritors, for the 
Kirk Bell and putting it up, as per articles of Debursement 
June 15th and Now. 12th, 1789, in the Treasurer's Book, 
10 Is 3d 2qr. 

Apl. 27th, 1794. To John M'Call for the handle of the Bell, 2/. 
From time to time items of expenditure connected with the 
setting up of the Communion tent are recorded, thus : 
June 19th, 1815. Nails for the tent, I/. 
June 22nd, 1817. Setting up the tent, 5/2. 
The summer of 1836 was probably the last occasion on which 
the Communion was dispensed in the churchyard. In 1837 
there is no mention of place in the Records, but in 1838 and 
subsequent years we find that it was dispensed in the Church. 

An entry tantalising by reason of its vagueness concern- 
ing the parish library, occurs under date January 19th, 1794 : 
To the Kirk Officer, Dunscore, for intirrfations about Glen- 
cairn Library, 6d. 

The nature of these intimations can only be conjectured. It 
appears that a "compliment of books " 93 vols. in number 
designed for the beginning of a parochial library, was gifted to 
the Kirk-Session of Glencairn by a Mr Ninian Crichton, of 
London, in 1732, and that a second donation of 90 vols. was 
made in 1733. It is clear, therefore, that a library existed in 
Glencairn long prior to 1790, the year in which the poet Burns 
wrote his famous letter advocating the formation of parish 
libraries ; but whether there is anything connecting the entry with 
the Burns letter, or the Bu'rns letter with the intimations made 
at the Kirk of Dunscore, it were probably idle to inquire. 

A flood of light is thrown upon the condition of the school- 
master by such entries as these : 


Aug. 14, 1791. To Jean Hench (School Wages, 1/6), 3/. 
Octr. 15, 1793. To Mr Lorimer, Schoolmaster, f of a year's 

school wages for Margt. Smith's children at 1/6 (per 

quarter), 4/6. 

The following are also illuminative : 
July 1, 1791. Postage letter from Dr Carlyle, I/. 
(The writer was no doubt Dr Carlyle of Inveresk, the " Jupiter 
Carlyle " of Kay's Edinburgh Portraits.} 
June 4, 1793. To Janet Goldie for bringing Nelly Gilchrist's 

Cloaths from Thornhill, 6d. (Thornhill, it may be men- 
tioned, is eight miles distant from Moniaive.) 
March 1, 1795. To John M'Turk for carrying a poor man to 

Dunscore (seven miles distant), 4s. 
Jany. 30, 1796. To the postage of a letter from Mr Forbes, 

inclosing a draught (sic) of 5 5s Od for the poor, 6d. 
June 1, 1817. Postage of a letter from Carlisle, 8d. 

The clerk was paid the modest salary of 10s 6d the half- 
year. The precentor's remuneration for a like period was 5s. 
The best paid man, and presumably the most important, was 
the " bedal." In a minute dated Novr. 21, 1785, we read: 
" The Session unanimously agreed to augment the Sellary (sic) 
of the Kirk -officer from sh.10 to sh.15 ster. on account of 
the additional trouble he has with the Hearse." 

One other curious fact connected with Church finance calls 
for notice, and that is, the Church's liability to loss from " bad 
brass " put into the plate on Sunday. In the earlier record of 
the collections we find the following references to the subject: 
Sep. 29, 179-1. Pr. exchange of 9sh. 6d bad brass for 4/6 good 

money lost, 5/. 
July 20, 1795. To loss upon bad brass, 2/1. 

In the later volume there is no improvement : 
May 19, 1816. Counterfeit silver and brass to be deducted, 




Aug. 25, 1816. Value for bad Half-pence, 1/2. 
It is impossible to excuse the state of matters revealed by 
these entries. All that can be said is that Glencairn was no 
worse than many other parishes throughout the country. 

Perhaps enough has now been said in regard to these old 
Church Records. It will be seen that they touch the life of the 
parish at many points, and while some regrettable things are 
mentioned, it will gladly be recognised that there is not a little 
that calls for gratitude. 


Glencairn, in common with every parish throughout Scot- 
land, lies under a debt of gratitude to John Knox for his far- 
reaching and statesmanlike policy with regard to education. 
The First Book of Discipline stipulated that "everie several 
church have a scholmaister appointed, suche a one as is able, 
at least, to teach Grammar and the Latine toung." As John 
Knox's proposals were ratified by legislative enactment in 1633, 
it is probable that a school would soon afterwards be established 
in Glencairn. It is even possible that, educationally, our 
parish was the envy of neighbouring communities, for it is 
on record that the Rev. William Brown, A.M., by his will 
dated 27th October, 1636, left " to the mantenance of ane 
scoole at the Kirk, 100 merks." In 1725 the Kirk-Session of 
Glencairn had under consideration the evils arising from non- 
attendance, and in a minute dated Feby. 19th of that year we 
read: " The Sess. being informed yt. there are se'all boys and 
Girls that spend their time about Mills and neither go to 
School nor such as are able to work betake themselves to any 
work. The Sess. Appoynt intima'ne be made from the pulpit 
that those of the sd children who are able to work apply them- 
selves to it. Such as are not able to work and their parents 
not able to pay their School Wages the Sess. have agreed that 
their School Wages be payd out of the collections, and that 
with all expedition they be disposed of as befor." 

We learn from the Records of the Presbytery of Penpont 
that the Presbytery likewise was active in the supervision of 
education throughout the bounds. In 1758 it appears, from 
a copy of a sederunt of the Heritors of Glencairn dated 25th 
August, 1758, printed in a Process of Sale (Craigdarroch 


Estate), Feby. 23rd, 1797, that, "70 8s OJd of the funds 
of the parish was placed in the hands of James Fergusson 
of Craigdarroch to be applied towards the support of an 
English School in the parish." Seventy pounds Scots does 
not seem a large sum for the support of education in 
a parish of the size of Glencairn. It must, however, 
be remembered that schoolmasters were very poorly paid 
in those days, and the allocation of this sum, small as it 
undoubtedly is, may be accepted as proof that the Heritors 
were prepared to advance the educational needs of the district 
according to the means at their disposal. 


Our next glimpse of the educational affairs of the parish is 
obtained in 1792, in which year the Rev. William Grierson 
wrote his account of Glencairn for Sir John Sinclair's Statistical 
Account of Scotland. He says : " There are two public 
schools, the one for Latin, with a legal salary of 8 6s 8d 
sterling, the other for English, writing, and arithmetic, with a 
salary of 4, by private donation. These schools used to be 
kept at the Church, and at Minniehive, four years alternately 
at each, by order of the heritors ; but that rotation has not 
been observed for several years past." Further interesting 
information bearing upon this departure is contained in a 
minute of the Heritors dated 9th April, 1802, where it 
is stated that " there was presented ^to the meeting two 
petitions subscribed by Sundry Heritors and heads of families, 
one of them praying to have the School removed down to Glen- 
cairn Kirk agreeable to the former practise and agreement of 
the Heritors, and the other that it should be continued at 
Minniaive, where it now is." It appears from this that the 
school had been removed without proper authority to Moniaive, 
and that certain of the parishioners were no longer prepared to 


acquiesce in the arrangement. Following upon their action we 
find from a minute dated the first day of October following 
that it was agreed " to set on foot a subscription paper for the 
purpose of having an additional schoolmaster in the parish of 

The sequel is interesting. " 27th July, 1804. The meet- 
ing unanimously resolved and appointed, that as the Parish 
of Glencairn is of very great extent, as one School could 
not possibly accomodate the whole Parish, and as there has 
been two Schools in it for many years, and sometimes three, the 
two Schools shall be continued in it in their present stations, 
the principal in the present Schoolhouse at Minniehive, the 
second one in the present Schoolhouse at the church, and a 
third one of an ambullary nature to accomodate the inhabitants 
near the heads of the three waters of Dalwhat, Craigdarroch, 
and Castlefairn, who are too great a distance from the Schools. 
That the station of the school in Dalwhat water 
shall not be above Benbowie and not below Drumloff. That 
the station in Castlefairn water shall not be above Castlefairn, 
nor below Craigneston, and that in Craigdarroch water not 
above Knockachlie nor below Craigdarroch. The meeting also 
appointed that the School should be kept in the above Station 
on the water of Dalwhat for the first year, on that on the water 
of Castlefairn for the second year, and on that on the water of 
Craigdarroch for the third year, and regularly to return to the 
said Stations in the above order in all the subsequent years." 1 

The new arrangement remained in force for upwards of a 
quarter of a century, an excellent proof that the work of re- 
organization had been well and carefully done; but a fresh 
and apparently unforeseen development was impending. In 
a minute dated 21st April, 1829, we read: "The meeting are 
unanimously of opinion that the three schools should be con- 
1. Minutes oj the Heritors of Glencairn, 


tinued in the Parish as formerly, viz., one at Minniaive, one at 
Glencairn Kirk, and the third alternately as heretofore in the 
three waters of Craigdarroch, Dalwhat, and Castlefairn, and 
under these circumstances they find by a reference to the fore- 
said Act (43 George 5, Cap. 54) that the salary for two or 
more schools must be the value of three chalders of Oat Meal 
at the rate of seventeen pounds two shillings and twopence 
farthing each, and making a total of Fifty one pounds six 
shillings and sixpence three farthings. The Rev. Mr Brown 
moved, which was seconded by Mr Barber (Tererran), that of 
this sum twenty-five pounds thirteen shillings and four pen ,e 
stg. should be appropriated to the school at Minniehive, seven- 
teen pounds two shillings and two pence stg. to the School at 
Kirkland of Glencairn, and eight pounds eleven shillings and 
one penny to the School to be kept in manner foresaid in the 
three waters above mentioned, of which appropriation the 
meeting approved." 

Exactly a year and a day later the same heritors as 
had unanimously agreed to continue the school at Kirkland 
as formerly, decided to transfer the said school to Cross- 
ford Bridge. The occasion of the change is set forth in 
a minute dated 22nd April, 1830. " Sir Robert Laurie stated 
that since the Society for Propagating Christian knowledge had 
abolished the School at Glenriddle, a great number of the 
children in the lower end of the Parish were deprived of the 
means of education. He (Sir Rob. Laurie) would therefore 
move that the school at the end of the church should be re- 
moved as far down the Parish as Crossford Bridge, and if the 
Heritors agreed to his motion he would most willingly give them 
a site for the building." The meeting, we are told, "unani- 
mously agreed to Sir Robert Laurie's motion, and decided to 
receive plans of said schoolhouse and accommodation for the 
Teacher." From a subsequent minute it appears that the 


Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge had directed 
their Factor, Mr Thomas Smith, " to discharge the account for 
some extra work done to and at the School-house at Crossford 
Bridge amounting to about 20," and also to present "the 
desk, forms, etc., from their former school at Glenriddle." 

Coming down to 1835, the date of the New Statistical Account, 
we find that further interesting developments had taken place. 
The Rev. John Brown, writer of the article on Glencairn, says : 
" There are five schools in this parish, of which three are 
parochial and two unendowed. Latin and Greek are taught at 
the parochial schools. The joint salaries of the parochial 
schoolmasters amount to 51 6s 8d. The first and second may 
receive each 20 a-year of fees; and the third 14. This sum 
is unequally divided amongst the teachers the first having 
25 13s 4d; the second, 17 2s 2Jd; and the third, 8 11s Id. 
As the heritors pay the maximum salary none of the teachers 
can claim a dwelling-house." 

In 1856 the question of the erection of a new school at 
Moniaive engaged the attention of the Heritors. The matter 
was first mooted at a meeting held on the twenty-first of 
February, but the proposal did not take definite shape until 
the eighteenth December following, when a meeting of Heri- 
tors was called " for the purpose of receiving the report of the 
Committee appointed 21st Feb. last for looking out for a site 
for the proposed new school." The minute proceeds: 
" Mr M'Call proposed the piece of ground belonging to Mrs 
Barber provided it could be got at a reasonable sum, say 60 
or 70, which was seconded by Mr Barber of Tererran. . . 
Mr M'Turk did not approve of the site as the best but gave way 
for the sake of unanimity. . . . The meeting afterwards 
appointed a committee for the purpose of conferring with Mrs 
Barber and her son as to the exact price of the property to 
procure plans of a schoolhouse to accomodate say 100 scholars 


with the probable expense also to correspond if necessary 
with Mr Williamson to ascertain what he would give his pro- 
perty for, and to report to an adjourned meeting to be held 
here (Minnyhive) on the 2d day of Feb., 1857, at 12 o'clock 
noon." Final details in the negotiations are awanting, but it 
appears from the title deeds that the purchase was completed 
27th May, 1857. On Mrs Barber's property in Chapel Street 
the school was accordingly erected. In these days the old 
school at Grainshead serves a humble but kindly purpose. 
From aiding the education of the parish youth it has come to 
shelter the sick and wandering poor. 

With the passing of the Education Act of 1872 a new era 
opened in the educational history of Scotland. For the first 
time school management was placed upon a popular and repre- 
sentative basis, and a great impetus was thus given to education 
all over the country. In our own parish handsome new schools 
have been erected at Moniaive and at Crossford, while at Craig- 
muie important additions have been made so as to provide 
adequate accommodation for scholars drawn from the more 
outlying portions of Balmaclellan, Dairy, and Glencairn 
parishes. By means of these three schools it has been found 
possible to provide suitable elementary education for every 
child in the district. The present School Board is composed 
of the following five members : Captain George Laurie Walker 
of Crawfordton (Chairman) ; William Barber of Tererran ; Cecil 
Emilius Laurie, Jarbruck; John M'Cheyne, Ingleston; William 
Irving, Borland. 


The only educational endowment is known as the Grierson 
Bequest, and is derived from certain funds left by James 
Grierson of Beechhill in 1857. In 1889 the Commissioners 
appointed under the Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act, 
1882, made a number of alterations in the administration of 


the Trust. The principal provisions of the scheme, as 
amended by the Commissioners, are as follow : Governing 
Body " The governing body shall consist of five persons, of 
whom one shall be the Minister of the Parish of Glencairn, one 
shall be elected by the Minister and Kirk-Session of the Parish 
of Glencairn, two shall be elected by the School Board of the 
said Parish, and one shall be elected by the Presbytery of Pen- 
pont." Application of Income "The governing body shall 
apply the free income of the Endowment in establishing a 
bursary for university education, which shall be called the 
Grierson Glencairn Bursary, and shall be awarded by competi- 
tive examination among those who have been pupils in public 
or State-aided schools in the parish of Glencairn for at least 
three years at any period prior to the date of examination. 
The bursary, which shall consist of the free annual income 
after deduction of necessary expenses, burdens, and taxes 
affecting the Endowment, but shall not in any case exceed the 
sum of 25, shall be tenable for such period not exceeding 
three years, as the governing body may from time to time deter- 
mine, at a university to be approved by the governing body. 
If in any year no qualified candidate shall appear for the 
bursary established in the immediately preceding section, the 
governing body shall apply a sum of not less than 15 and 
not more than 20 in giving a bursary for higher education, 
which shall be called the Grierson Glencairn Bursary, and shall 
be awarded by competitive examination among those who have 
been pupils in public or State-aided schools in the parish of 
Glencairn for at least three years at any period prior to the 
date of examination, and whose age at the date of competition 
shall not exceed fourteen years. The bursary shall be held for 
two years at the Wallace Hall Academy or such school for 
higher education or technical instruction as the governing body 
may approve." In a subsequent section it is set forth, that if 
in any year no candidate appears who is qualified in terms of 


either of the two immediately preceding sections, the govern- 
ing body is empowered " to receive applications from those who 
have been pupils in public or State-aided schools within the 
bounds of the Presbytery of Penpont. ' ' 


A list of the schoolmasters of the parish approximately 
if not absolutely complete compiled from the Kirk-Session 
Records of Glencairn, Glencairn Free Kirk-Session Record, the 
Minutes of the Heritors of Glencairn, and the Presbytery Book 
of Penpont, may be of interest to many in the parish : 

James Aikman appointed 1694. 

Thomas Boston ,, 1696. 

John Gilchrist 1699. 

John Grier ,, 1701. 

Archibald Hadden 1718. (?) 

(Blank in Presbytery Records.) 

John Laurie appointed 1722. 

James Brown prior to 1726. 

(In 1726 he was appointed under-teacher in 
the Grammar School, Dumfries.) 

William Douglas appointed 1735. 

James Hunter ,, 1745. 

Robert Davidson prior to 1747. 

Thomas Gray ... appointed 1756. 

James Murdoch ,, 1759. 

Daniel Martin prior to 1762. 

John Fergusson demitted 1768. 

John Brown prior to 1780. 

James Gordon appointed 1788. 

George Lorrimer prior to 1793. 

Robert Gorden appointed 1802. 

John Harkness 1804, 


Charles Ramage demitted 1808. 

David Morrine appointed 1823. 

John Hastings demitted 1824. 

George Hunter appointed 1824. 

Adam Crinzean ,, 1832. 

William Gibson 1841. 

Adam Semple ,, 1864. 

John Connacher ,, 1885. 

Kirkpatrick Hunter ,, 1888. 

Peter Jamieson ,, 1891. 

James Ellis Steele 1900. 


Uzziah Donachy (?) appointed 1843. 

George Bell 1843. 

Alexander (?) Haining ,, 1845. 

George Proudfoot ,, 1846. 

William Fairley 1849. 

Thomas Wilson 1856. 

The regular schools were supplemented by private, or, as 
they were commonly called, "adventure" schools. These 
"adventure " schools were often conducted by women. Thus, 
in An Abridged Statistical History of Scotland, by Jas. Hooper 
Dawson (1853), we read that in 1837 Glencairn had three 
parish schools with an attendance of 148, and two female schools 
with an attendance of 70. Poorly equipped as such " adven- 
ture " schools were, they did a good work in their day, and 
many still living are ready to testify that to them they owe the 
better part of their education. 


The important part played by Glencairn in quelling the 
insurrectionary movements of 1715 and 1745 forms an interest- 
ing chapter in the local annals. No one who follows the course 
of these Rebellions can fail to recognise that a considerable 
portion of the Scottish people was deeply attached to the 
Stuart dynasty. In Glencairn, however, the bloody persecu- 
tion instituted by King Charles II. was too fresh in the mind 
of the people for them to countenance any effort that aimed 
at the restoration of a Stuart to the throne. No sooner, 
indeed, were the mutterings of rebellion heard than Mr 
Alexander Fergusson of Craigdarroch, and certain other 
influential gentlemen in the south and west, convened a meeting 
for the purpose of devising measures of defence. The gathering 
was held at Dalmellington on the 18th March, 1714. Rae says 
that among other important steps taken, one Wm. Scot, a 
serjeant in the Castle of Edinburgh, was sent for by the 
gentlemen and ministers in the Presbytery of Penpont, to assist 
in training their people. 1 The wisdom of this step soon became 

The Earl of Mar, having completed his preparations in the 
north, contemplated a descent upon the Lowlands. With the 
view of preventing this, and also, if possible, of extinguishing the 
Rebellion at its birthplace, the Duke of Argyle, the Royalist 
commander-in-chief, formed a camp at Stirling and summoned 
the friends of King George throughout the country to meet him 

The following is the text of a letter 2 addressed by the Duke 
to Mr Alexander Fergusson of Craigdarroch : 

1. Rae's Hist, of Rebellion, p. 43. 
2. Ibid., p, 229. 

THE REBELLIONS OF 1715 AND 1745. 98 

Edinburgh, 16th Sept., 1715. 

SIR, Since my arrival at this Place, having received 
certain Information; that the disaffected Highlanders, and the 
King's other enemies are assembled in a considerable Body, 
and in a rebellious manner threaten the Government, I have 
not thought it safe to trust entirely to the number of Troops 
that are at present in this Country; and therefor I have 
called for the Assistance of the well-affected Boroughs first 
judging they might more easily come out than the Country 
because of the Harvest. Your Lord Lieutenant not being yet 
come down to give Orders for drawing out such other of the 
well-affected People as should be thought necessary : And I 
being convinced of your Zeal and good Inclination to serve our 
King & Country and looking upon you as my particular 
Friend; I apply to you on this Occasion and desire you would 
forthwith come to Stirling, with what number of well-armed men 
you can get together to join the King's Regular Forces. This 
will be of infinite service to his Majesty, and will not fail to be 
acknowledged as such. 

Since the King's Enemies are gathering together, it will 
be highly for his Majesty's service, that all the well-affected Men 
in your Country that are armed, should hold themselves in 
readiness to march, and even to begin to assemble. Though 
your Number of Men be not at first to your wish, yet, you may 
march what you can get together, and they may still be in- 
creasing as the necessity of Affairs requires. 

I am, Sir, 
Your Most faithful and obedient Servant, 


Prompt action followed receipt of this letter. To quote 
again from the historian Rae: 

" As soon as Craigdarroch had received this Letter, he 
acquainted the well-affected Gentlemen and People therewith; 


and apply 'd himself carefully to draw together what Men he 
could get on a sudden, for His Majesty's Service: And about 
60 Men in the Paroches of Glencairn and Tinron (who were 
sufficiently provided with Firelocks, Swords, and Bayonets, and 
other necessary Accoutrements) having inlisted themselves to go 
to Stirling; He prevail'd with John Gibson of Auchinchain, to 
be their Captain, assign'd them their other proper Officers; and 
provided them also with Drum & Colours. Upon the 22d of 
September they set out from Minyive, and marched to the Keir 
Moss not far from Penpont, where the People of the Neigh- 
bouring Parishes were assembl'd in Arms, with Sir Thos. Kirk- 
patrick of Closeburn, James Grierson of Capinoch, John 
Dalrymple of Waterside, Thomas Hunter of Bateford, and 
several other Gentlemen and Ministers of these Parishes. Being 
arrived there, he set up the Standard, desiring such as were 
willing to go with him to turn into it ; at the same Time shewing 
them the Justice of the Cause and the Necessity of this Under- 
taking for the Defence of their Religion, Liberties, and Country, 
as well as of their only rightful Soveraign King George, as 
Motives to induce them to comply with his Desire. The 
Gentlemen likewise encourag'd them to it; and particularly Sir 
Thomas Kirkpatrick, who in a handsome Speech to the People 
promis'd to such of 'em as were his own Tenants, that he 
would defray their Charges in going and coming, and give each 
of them Eightpence a Day, while they .attended the Camp. 
Hereupon severals turn'd in to the Standard, and many others 
shew'd 'emselves willing, but that they could not yet go, 
because of their Harvest, which was that Year very late, and 
because they had got so short Advertisement. 

" Next Day Craigdarroch and his Men set forward in their 
Way to Stirling, to which Place he was accompani'd by the said 
Thomas Hunter of Bateford, Robert M'gachan of Dalquhat, Mr 
Simon Riddel, Minister of Tinron, Mr John Pollock, Minister 

THE REBELLIONS OF 1715 AND 1745. 95 

of Glencairn, Mr James Hunter, Minister of Dornock; and 
several others. He stay'd at Stirling till he was ordered by 
the Duke of Argyle to come Home, and take care of the Affairs 
of the Country; and then he returned leaving the Men there, 
for Eight Weeks Time, who did Duty all the while, as the 
Regular Troops did, in the Castle of Stirling as the General 
directed." 1 

It would appear that a portion of these volunteers from 
Glencairn and Tynron, possibly such as could not conveniently 
go to Stirling, were appointed to do duty at Dumfries; and in 
the Treasurer's Accounts of Dumfries Town Council we find 
certain entries of refreshments supplied to them at the town's 
Oct. 31, 1715. 

To Glenekern men and Tinran men for Bread to 

them by the provist's order ... ... ... 2 6 

Nov. 4, 1715. 

To Dallwhat for Glenkern and Tinran men for 

drink to them by bailley hynds order ... 7 6 
Nov. 7, 1715. 

To John Gordon which he gave to his own Com- 
pinie and Craigdarouch's at Loughmaben 
gate poort by the provist's orders ... ... 6 6 

The comparatively large outlay for " drink ' ' as compared 
with " bread ' ' invites comment, but it is probably no more 
than a reflex of the usages of the times. 

Turning from this interesting glimpse of the men of Glen- 
cairn leaving Moniaive with drums beating and colours flying, 
and their doing garrison duty at Stirling for eight weeks " as 
the regular troops did," we find that in the interval the 

1. It may be' of interest to state that the " General " mentioned by 
Rae was the Honourable Colonel John Blackader, a son of Glencairn, 
who had emerged from his well-earned retirement to take command of 
the volunteers from the south and west (see Chap. XII., p. 113). 


insurrectionary movement had well nigh spent itself. The 
Jacobites had declared their intention of burning the house of 
Craigdarroch, and the houses of others who went to Stirling ; 
the county town had likewise been threatened; but all these 
brave boastings came to nothing. By the middle of November 
the rebel cause was crushed in the south, and a few months later 
the Pretender was a fugitive in France. 


To the later and more serious Rebellion of 1745 we need 
not refer further than it concerns the local history. At the 
time of this second rising Mr James Fergusson, younger of 
Craigdarroch, was Commissioner to the Duke of Queensberry, 
and from letters addressed by Mr Fergusson to His Grace, we 
glean valuable information as to the course of events in Niths- 

In a letter dated 2nd September, 1745, apparently written 
by Mr Fergusson after attending a meeting of the Commissioners 
of Supply, he refers to the good inclination of the people as 
evidenced by "their desire to have arms put in their hands," 
and adds : " I go to Drumlanrig to-morrow, and as the post 
does not go from this till Wednesday, I have left this with 
Commissary Goldie, that if anything further occur twixt now 
and then he may add it." 

Subsequently a committee was appointed to confer with the 
Presbytery on the crisis, and in a minute of a meeting, held at 
Dumfries on 4th September, we read that " the Presbytery 
agreed, and recommended to each minister of the bounds to 
take the most prudent method in their several parishes to get 
an account of the number of arms and fencible men in their 
respective parishes, and to bring in a report thereanent." 
Notwithstanding energetic action on the part of the ministers, 
considerable apathy was shown by other members of the com- 
munity, with the result that, at the end of three months, very 

THE REBELLIONS OF 1715 AND 1745. 97 

little progress had been made in the direction designed. The 
county was soon to pay dearly for this inaction. 

When Charles retreated from Derby he crossed the Esk 
at Longtown. A portion of his forces then proceeded north- 
wards, but the main body, led by himself, marched upon 
Dumfries. He entered the town without opposition, and forth- 
with demanded a money payment of no less a sum than two 
thousand pounds sterling. The Burgh was further required to 
deliver one thousand pairs of shoes, together with all arms, 
" against eight o'clock the following night." Sir Robert Laurie 
of Maxwelton, Glencairn, and a number of other gentlemen 
came handsomely to the aid of the Burgh at this juncture, but, 
despite the most strenuous efforts, the sum of 1195 was all 
that could be raised by the time stipulated, and when Prince 
Charles left Dumfries the following day he carried with him Mr 
Walter Riddle of Glenriddle and Ex-Provost Crosbie as hostages 
for payment of the balance. These gentlemen were afterwards 
liberated, but not until the Prince's demands had been met in 

The course of events during the closing days of December, 
1745, is outlined by Mr Fergusson in a letter to His Grace 
dated the 28th of the month: 

" Since I wrote your Grace, the 18th of this, the face of 
affairs is much changed here. Upon Friday, the 20th, the 
Highland army crossed Esk, and part of them came that night 
within 8 miles of Dumfries. The 21st the greatest part of 
them came to Dumfries, the rest having gone to Moffat, and a 
few came that night within 8 miles of this. The 22nd a few 
came to Thornhill, but most of them remained in Dumfries. 
The 23rd, they came all here and to the adjacent villages. 
The 24th, they left and went to Douglas, only some part of 
them lodged that night in Leadhills and Wanlockhead, and 
some near Sanquhar. The 25th, forty of them entered Glasgow 
and demanded quarter for their whole Army in the kirks, 


meeting houses, and other publick buildings, and said they 
would not go into private houses. I have yet heard nothing 
further of their route. At Dumfries they behaved very rudely, 
strip 'd everybody almost of their shoes, obliged the town to 
give them 2000 and a considerable quantity of shoes, and 
carried away Provost (Ex-Provost) Crosbie and Mr Walter 
Riddell, Merchants, as hostages for 1000 more, which was 
yesterday sent them to relieve these gentlemen. 

" I was at Thornhill, the 21st, in the morning (when I 
heard of their approach) with a company of 100 men, which I 
mentioned in my last, and about 50 Seceders. I retired here 
and keepd them together till the evening, when I had certain 
advice the greater part of the Highland Army was in Dumfries, 
and that everybody had laid down their arms; upon which I 
dismissed the people and desired them to secure their arms 
and horses. The 22nd, in the morning I left this (Drumlanrig) 
with all my family except 9 servants by daybreak, and went 
to my fathers house at Craigdarroch. The 23rd, about seven 
in the morning, two letters from Murray, their Secretary, and 
another from one Riddell, a Fife gentleman and an acquaint- 
ance of mine, who is with them, were brought here, and sent 
from this by express to Craigdarroch, where they found me 
about ten. The contents were telling me their Prince was to 
lodge here that night, and requiring me to provide quarters 
for their whole Army in this house and the adjacent village. 
They neither mentioned their numbers nor directed me what 
quantity was to be got, but only desired I would cause kill a 
great number of blade cattel and sheep, and provide a great 
quantity of meal. I retired immediately into the Galloway hills, 
about 8 miles further, without giving them any answer, and 
carried the person who brought me the letters with me. . . . 
I returned the 25th about eleven at night, and found most of 
the house worse than I could possibly imagine before I saw it. 

THE REBELLIONS OF 1715 AND 1745. 99 

. . . . May God grant there may never be any such guests 

here " 

Under date 7th January, 1746, Mr Fergusson again writes 
to the Duke : " I mentioned in my last that I had wrote the 
25th Decbr. to His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland 
offering to do everything in my power for forwarding his Army 
should it come this way, and that I waited his orders. I sent 
him enclosed the two letters I got from the Highlanders 
requiring me to provide quarters for them here. Mr William 
Kirkpatrick, Sir Thomas' Brother, and my Father, who were 
then with me at Craigdarroch, wrote another letter to the same 
purpose to His Royal Highness. We sent them by Mr William 
Moody, minister of Glencairn. . . . People of all Ranks 
here have shown so much their zeal to serve His Majesty King 
George, that if the Rebels return this way I fear what we have 
already suffered will appear a trifle in comparison of what we 
must yet expect." 

Happily all cause for anxiety was soon at an end. The 
insurgent army retreated northward, and their defeat on 
Culloden Moor, which speedily followed, crushed for ever all 
the hopes Charles Stuart cherished of occupying the throne of 
his fathers. 


The Fergussons of Craigdarroch are the oldest Glencairn 
family of whom we have any authentic information. Fergus 
de Glencarn witnesses a charter early in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. In 1398 John Fergusson, dominus de Craigdarroch, was 
settled in the lands of Jarbruck by virtue of a charter granted 
by a Crawford. By the middle of the fifteenth century 
Matthew was in possession, and he was succeeded by his son 
John. In 1508 John Fergusson of Craigdarroch and his son 
Thomas were involved with Lord Maxwell and Sir William 
Douglas of Drumlanrig in an attack on Lord Sanquhar, Sheriff 
of Nithsdale. The contemporary accounts shed a curious 
sidelight upon the state of law and order of the period. In 
the brulzie or " grate f eicht, ' ' as Sir James Balf our calls it, 
several of Lord Sanquhar's supporters, his kinsman, Robert 
Crichton of Kirkpatrick, among the number, were slain. The 
Fergussons were brought to trial for Crichton 's death on 30th 
September, 1512, but they were acquitted on the ground that 
the deceased Robert Crichton was " our soveraine lordis rebell, 
and at his home." 1 

Even at this early period the lairds of Craigdarroch were 
men of position and influence. In Monypenny's Chronicle, 
published in 1587, sixty-five lairds and gentlemen are enume- 
rated as residing in Dumfriesshire and the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, and among them we find the name "Fer- 
gusson of Craigdarroch." William Fergusson sat as a 
commissioner from the Presbytery of Penpont in the Glasgow 
Assembly of 1638, and assisted at the dethronement of the 
bishops. In 1640 we find him with a seat in Parliament. 
1. Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, Vol. L, p. 79. 


From that date onwards different members of the family were 
chosen to represent Dumfriesshire in the old Scottish Parlia- 
ments. John was a member of the Parliament of 1649, and 
he was succeeded by Robert in 1650. Robert espoused the 
Royalist side in the Civil War, and an account is extant of a 
skirmish near the Clean in 1651, in which he headed a hand- 
ful of resolute men, who engaged and put to flight a detach- 
ment of Cromwell's "Ironsides." In 1667 he was one of a 
committee of three appointed by the Privy Council to investi- 
gate the charges of oppression and malversation preferred 
against Sir James Turner. The committee considered that a 
great many illegal exactions and misdemeanours of other kinds 
had been proved against Sir James and those under his com- 
mand, and, in consequence of this finding, Sir James was 
shortly afterwards dismissed from the King's service. 1 John 
Fergusson, the next head of the house, was a devoted Presby- 
terian, and he fell fighting against Claverhouse at the Battle of 
Killiecrankie in 1689. 

Alexander Fergusson, the descendant of John, was a loyal 
follower in his father's footsteps, and raised a company 
of volunteers to oppose the Pretender in 1715. He was 
a member of Parliament in 1702-7 and 1715-22. In 1709 
he married Anna, the " bonnie Annie Laurie" of Scottish 
song, and youngest daughter of Sir Robert Laurie of Max- 
welton; and it was a son of this union, also an Alexander, 
who was the hero of the famous bacchanalian contest celebrated 
by Burns in his poem of "The Whistle." Alexander secundus 
became eminent both as an advocate and as a Freemason. He 
was one of the guiding spirits of the " Nithsdale St. Paul Lodge 
of Freemasons, No. 139, Moniaive," erected 8th February, 
1768, and as Provincial Grand Master of the Southern or Dum- 
fries District he laid the foundation-stone of the New Bridge 
1. Wodrow, Vol. II., p. 101. 


at Dumfries in 1791. He likewise presided on the historic 
occasion of the inauguration of Robert Burns as Poet Laureate 
of the Canongate Kilwinning Lodge of Freemasons, 1787, an 
event to which the poet himself refers with satisfaction in a 
letter to John Ballantine, Esq., dated January 14th, 1787. 
The Right Hon. Robert Cutlar-Fergusson of Craigdarroch, 
eldest son and successor of Alexander, was born in 1768, and 
called to the English bar in July, 1797. He is said to have 
given early promise of future eminence, and he soon became 
known as an accomplished lawyer and scholar. He took a 
prominent part in founding the Society of the Antiquaries of 
Scotland in 1780, and had the honour of being elected one of 
the first Vice-Presidents of the Society. In 1799 the Earl of 
Thanet, Mr Fergusson of Craigdarroch, and three other 
commoners were charged with joining in an attempt to assist 
Arthur O'Connor, who was then being tried for high treason, 
to escape from justice. The Earl of Thanet and Mr Fergus- 
son were found guilty and sentenced to be fined and imprisoned. 
Mr Fergusson disputed the justice of the verdict, and, by way 
of vindicating his reputation, he published a verbatim report 
of the whole proceedings (see Appendix C., Bibliography}. 
Subsequently he proceeded to India, where he speedily attained 
a foremost place in his profession. On returning to this country 
he was elected in 1826 as member of Parliament for the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and he continued to represent that 
constituency until his death. In 1834 he was appointed Judge- 
Advocate-General, and at the same time sworn of the Privy 
Council. He was succeeded by his son, Robert Cutlar 
Fergusson, J.P., who died 6th October, 1859, leaving issue: 

1. Robert Cutlar, late of Craigdarroch. 

2. Archibald William Cutlar. 

3. Alexander Edward. 

Robert Cutlar Fergusson, J.P., counties of Dumfries and Kirk- 


cudbright, late Captain Scots Guards, married 5th February, 
1889, Rose, elder daughter of John Grant Hodgson of Cabalva, 
Co. Hereford, and died 1904, having by her had issue 

1. Ella Cutlar, now of Craigdarroch. 

2. Esme, twin with her sister. 
Born 12th October, 1889. l 

In the Records of the Clan Fergusson (p. 375) we are told 
that " the principal cadet branches of the House of Craigdarroch 
were those of Isle and Caitloch. One of the family of Isle 
represented Dumfriesshire in the last Scottish Parliament, and 
Fergusson of Caitloch was a fugitive in Holland, while his 
family suffered great hardships prior to the Revolution." 
Space, however, prevents us from noticing these collateral 
branches in detail. 


Alexander Cuningham, Lord of Kilmaurs, was created first 
Earl of Glencairn by James III. on 28th May, 1488. He is 
supposed to have been descended from one Warnebald, of 
Danish extraction, who came from the North of England in the 
12th century in the retinue of Hugh de Morville, Constable of 
Scotland. Sir William Cuningham, his grandfather, had 
acquired lands in Glencairn through marriage with Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Robert de Dunyelston, and it was from these 
possessions, which had been conferred upon Sir Robert by King 
David Bruce in 1373, that Alexander took his title. 

By the Act Rescissory, passed in the first Parliament of 
James IV., 17th October, 1488, all creations of new dignities 
granted by that Monarch's father since 2nd February preceding 
were annulled, and in consequence Robert, Lord Kilmaurs, 
eldest son of the Earl of Glencairn, was deprived of the title. 
In 1503 the Act Rescissory was in turn abrogated, and in the 
1. Burke's Landed Gentry. 


person of Cuthbert Cuningham, the next in descent, the earldom 
was restored to the family. By his countess, Lady Marjory 
Douglas, eldest daughter of the fifth Earl of Angus, Cuthbert 
had a son, William, fourth Earl. This nobleman was one of 
the ablest and most powerful barons of his time. He was 
appointed high-treasurer of Scotland, 25th June, 1526, but held 
that office only till 29th October following. His power and 
influence were so great, that when the English King contem- 
plated an invasion of Scotland, his lordship undertook to convey 
his army from Carlisle to Glasgow " without stroke or chal- 
lenge." 1 He died in 1547. His son, Andrew, was likewise 
prominently associated with the events of the period. In 1539, 
when Cardinal David Beaton succeeded his uncle in the See of 
St. Andrews, Andrew Cuningham, son of the master of Glen- 
cairn, James Hamilton, brother to Patrick Hamilton, and the 
celebrated George Buchanan, the historian, were severally 
apprehended and imprisoned on a charge of heresy, and if they 
had not found means to escape, it is probable that all would 
have perished in the flames. 2 

Alexander, fifth Earl of Glencairn, sometimes called " the 
good Earl," was one of the chief promoters of the Reformation 
movement in Scotland. He took a prominent part in the 
negotiations with the Queen Regent, and throughout this test- 
ing and trying time showed consistent loyalty to the Protestant 
cause. He was a man to be reckoned with on the field of 
battle as well as in the council chamber, and at Langside, which 
settled for ever the claims of the unfortunate Mary, he bore 
himself with conspicuous bravery. His eldest son William, 
sixth Earl, was a Privy Councillor of James VI. and one of the 
commissioners nominated by Parliament for the projected 
Union with England in 1604. He married Janet, daughter of 
Gordon of Lochinvar, by whom he had two sons and four 

1. Scottish Nation, Vol. II., p. 310. 
2. Biographia Scoticana, p. 25. 


daughters. His eldest son, and successor, James, the seventh 
Earl, comes prominently before us in connection with a feud of 
long standing between the Cuninghams and the Montgomeries. 
On the 19th day of November, 1591, he was ordained to find 
caution to the extent of 20,000 within eight days under pain 
of being proclaimed a "rebel at the horn." Later, for non- 
fulfilment of a " decreet ' ' passed by the Lords and Council and 
Session, he was charged to deliver up his houses of " Kilmar- 
annock, Finlaystoun, Stevenstoun, Kilmaweris, and Glen- 
cairne," to the official executor of the court. It is probable he 
suffered considerable material loss by these proceedings. 
Certain it is that in 1611 Lord Kilmaurs and his father-in-law, 
Sir Robert Gordon of Lochinvar, sold to Stephen Laurie the 
lands of Maxwelton, reserving only a small plot of ground, a 
few feet square, for the sake of the title, and that the lands 
thus disposed of were the last of the Cuningham possessions in 

From this date the history of the Earls of Glencairn 
becomes merged in the history of Scotland. Suffice it to say 
that the family continued to play a prominent part in national 
affairs down to 1796, when the male line of the main stem 
became extinct. It has been observed that collateral branches 
of old families often linger in a parish long after the main stem 
has disappeared, and it may be of interest to mention that an 
elderly maiden lady who claimed to be a descendant of the 
Earls of Glencairn, was laid to rest in the Cuningham burying 
ground in Glencairn Churchyard as recently as the year 1883. 


The connection of the Laurie family with Glencairn com- 
menced early in the seventeenth century. The founder was 
Stephen Laurie, a Dumfries merchant, who in 1611 purchased 
from James, 7th Earl of Glencairn, and his father-in-law, Sir 
Robert Gordon of Lochinvar, the lands of Bellibocht, (not 


" Bithbought " as given by M'Dowall), Shancastle, and Max- 
welton, in the parish of Glencairn. He married Marion, 
daughter of John Corsane of Meikleknox, M.P. for Dumfries, 
and had three children. His son John, who succeeded, married 
in 1630 Agnes, daughter of Sir Robert Grierson of Lag. He 
espoused the cause of the Covenanters and, as already men- 
tioned, had to pay a fine of 3,600 Scots for his non-conformity. 
Robert, the next in the succession, married Mary, daughter of 
Robert Dalzell of Glense. Unlike his father he took the side 
of the King, and became one of Claverhouse's most active 
abettors. On 21st March, 1685, he received from King James 
VII. "for his merits " the title and honour of Knight Baronet, 
but in Glencairn he is remembered as one who sullied the 
fair fame of the name he bore. Robert Laurie married, 
secondly, Jean, daughter of Walter Riddell of Minto, writer, 
Edinburgh, by whom he had three sons and four daughters. 
One of the daughters, Anna, born at Maxwelton, 16th Decem- 
ber, 1682, grew up, as M'Dowall says, "to be the most beauti- 
ful Dumfriesshire lady of the day, and the heroine of a song 
which has rendered her charms immortal." 


The writer of the song in honour of " bonnie Annie 
Laurie " was William Douglas of Fingland, in Kirkcudbright- 
shire, a soldier of fortune, attached to the house of Stuart. 
He was the eldest son of Archibald Douglas of Morton Castle, 
and of Marion Kennedy of Auchtyfardel, who were married at 
Morton Castle, 10th May, 1670. His commission as an ensign 
in the Royal Scots is dated 21st September, 1688. It appears 
that the object of his affections, instead of keeping the " pro- 
mise true," which she is said to have made, preferred the suit 
of Mr Alexander Fergusson of Craigdarroch, and her marriage 
to that gentleman was duly celebrated in the Tron Kirk, Edin- 
burgh, on 29th July, 1709. She long survived her husband, 


and died at Friars' Carse, Dumfriesshire, on April 5th, 1764, 
in the eighty-second year of her age. As for her poet-lover, 
fate has proved doubly unkind to him. Supplanted in love, he 
has likewise been supplanted in song, for the version of " Max- 
welton Braes " that we now sing is not the original version, 
but a modern adaptation which we owe to Lady John Scott, a 
gifted member of the Spottiswood family. As originally 
written the song consisted of two verses, which Chambers says 
are "in a style wonderfully tender and chaste for their age." 
A copy of these less familiar verses, printed as they originally 
appeared in Charles Kirkpatrick S'harpe's Ballad Book (1832), 
is here appended. 

Maxwelton banks are bonnie, 

Where early fa's the dew; 
Where me and Annie Laurie 

Made up the promise true; 
Made up the promise true ; 

And never forget will I, 
And for bonnie Annie Laurie 

I'd lay down my head and die. 

She's backit like a peacock, 

She's breastit like a swan, 
She's jimp about the middle, 

Her waist you weill may span, 
Her waist you weill may span, 

And she has a rolling eye ; 
And for bonnie Annie Laurie 

I'd lay down my head and die. 

Annie Laurie sleeps by the side of her husband in Glen- 
cairn Churchyard. Her resting-place abuts on the church in 
which she worshipped. Less than a mile away are the " bonnie 
braes " of her childhood; and close at hand the crystal Cairn, 


upon whose waters she must often have looked in those joyous 
days, croons as of yore its own melodious song. 

That she was a woman sound of judgment, as she was fair 
of countenance, is shown by her will, which we subjoin: 

" I, Anna Laurie, spouse to Alexr. Fergussone off Craig- 
darroch, Forasmuch as I considering it a dewtie upon everie 
persone whyle they are in health and sound judgment so as 
to settle yr. worldly affairs that yrby all animosities betwixt 
friend and relatives may obviat, and also for the singular love 
and respect I have for the said Alex. Fergussone, in caise he 
survives me I do heirby make my letter will as follows : First, I 
recommend my soule to God, hopeing by the meritorious 
righteousness of Jesus Christ to be saved; secondly, I recom- 
mend my body ito be decently and orderly interred; and in the 
third plaice nominate and appoynt the sd. Alexr. Fergussone 
to be my sole and only executor, Legator, and universall intro- 
metter with my haill goods, gear, debts, and soums off money 
that shall pertain and belong to me the tyme of my decease or 
shall be dew to me by bill, bond, or oyrway ; with power to him 
to obtain himself confirmed and decreed exr. to me and to do 
everie thing for fixing and establishing the right off my spouse 
in his person as law requires; in witness whereoff thir pntts. 
written ( ?) be Johne Wilson off Chapell, wryter in Dumfries, 
are subd. by me at Craigdarroch the twenty-eight day of Apryle, 
Im vijc and eleven [1711] years, befor the witnesses the said 
John Wilsone and John Nicholsone his servitor. 

"Jo. WILSONE, Witness. 
"JOHN HOAT, Witnes." 

To return to the succession, Sir Robert Laurie died in 
1698. His son, Sir Robert (2nd Bart.), who succeeded, was 
killed by a fall from his horse, 28th February, 1702, and the 
estate and title devolved upon his brother Sir Walter (3rd 


Bart.). Walter married Jean, daughter of Sir Patrick Nisbet 
of Dean. He was succeeded by his son Sir Robert (4th Bart.), 
who married Christian, daughter of Charles Erskine of Alva, a 
Lord of Session. Sir Robert died 28th April, 1779, and was 
succeeded by his son, Lieut. -General Sir Robert Laurie (5th 
Bart.). He was Knight-Marshal of Scotland, Col. of 8th 
Dragoons, and M.P. for Dumfriesshire from 1774 to 1804, the 
year of his death. His only son, Admiral Sir Robert Laurie of 
Maxwelton, K.C.B., (6th and last Bart.), who succeeded, was a 
distinguished naval officer. He died without issue in 1848, and 
was succeeded in the estate by a nephew, John Minet Fector, 
who died in 1868. The present representative of the family 
is the Rev. Sir Emilius Laurie, Bart., who assumed by Royal 
Licence the name of Laurie, in lieu of Bayley, on succeeding 
to the estate of Maxwelton in 1887. 


Although the Gibsons of Glencrosh do not appear in Glen- 
cairn until the middle of the seventeenth century, different 
members of the family play an important part in the public 
life of the parish between that period and the close of the 
eighteenth century. In 1654 John Gibson of Glencrosh pur- 
chased from George Cunningham of Craignestoun " the two 
merk land called the Three Riggs with pertinents in the barony 
and parish of Glencairn," and these lands were held by him 
together with the lands of Glencrosh. It must have been either 
this John Gibson or a son of his who was penalised for his 
pronounced Covenanting sympathies by a fine of 600 Scots. 
He married Janet Gibson, and had four sons, by one of whom, 
John, he was succeeded. John died in May, 1680, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, James. In the will of James 
Gibson, dated 17th March, 1684, he directed that his eldest 
son, John, was to intromit with the moveables and make pay- 
ments of the others' portions at the sight of John Gibson of 


Auchincheane, Robert Herries in Castlefairne, William Gibson 
of Dibben, his brother, and Robert Grier in "Mynyve," whom 
be appointed tutors to his children. The " John Gibson of 
Auchincheane " here mentioned is undoubtedly the John 
Gibson who took command of the men of Glencairn when they 
marched to Keir Moss on the first mutterings of rebellion in 
1715. Evidently he had inherited more than the name of his 
forebear, John Gibson, Covenanter. John Gibson succeeded to 
Glencrosh on the death of his father in March, 1684. He did 
not, however, receive sasine till April 9th, 1711. His eldest 
son, who was likewise named John, succeeded in 1724. He 
was a Commissioner for Land Tax in Dumfriesshire from 1728 
to 1738. He married on December 22nd, 1726, Sarah Thom- 
son, and had three children, viz., Samuel (b. 1727), John, and 
a daughter Nicholas. Samuel, who succeeded, was likewise a 
Commissioner for Land Tax. He died without issue in 1756, 
and as his brother John had predeceased him, Glencrosh passed 
to their sister Nicholas. Gilbert Gibson, another member of 
the family, was a Land Tax Commissioner in 1753, and Robert 
in 1762. In the Act of 1768 the name of Gibson again appears, 
but no Christian name is given. 

Glencrosh continued in the possession of the Gibsons until 
about 1870, when the estate was sold to John M'Millan of 
Holm, in whose family it continues. 

Other families might be mentioned as holding lands in the 
parish of old, such as Danyelstoun or Dennistoun, Crawford, 
Crichton, Rorison, Riddell, Corson, M'Gachan or M'Caughie, 
Smith, Stewart, Collow, Brown, and Moffat. All these once 
important families have disappeared or left but feeble traces 
of their former greatness. At the present time the landed 
families most prominently identified with the parish are : 
The Fergussons of Craigdarroch. 
The Lauries of Maxwelton, 


The Walkers of Crawfordton. 

The M'Calls of Caitloch. 

The Connells of Auchencheyne. 1 

The M'Millans of Glencrosh and Woodlea. 

The Barbers of Tererran. 

The Martins of Dardarroch. 

In Glencairn most of the land-owning families are resident. 
The advantages of this do not require to be enlarged upon, and 
it is safe to say that there are very few parishes in which the 
relations between proprietor and tenant are so cordial in 

1 . The estate has just passed by purchase into the hands of William Kennedy 

Moffat, Esq. 


Mention has already been made of James Renwick, of 
Robert Cutlar-Fergusson, of "Bonnie Annie Laurie," and of 
other famous sons and daughters of Glencairn. In this chapter 
we propose to notice yet a number of others who, for their 
works' sake, deserve to be held in remembrance. 


This " Brave soldier and devout Christian " was born at 
Bardennoch, Glencairn, on the 14th September, 1664. He 
was the fifth and youngest son of the Rev. John Blackader, 
"outed" minister of Troqueer, Kirkcudbrightshire. Of his 
early life very little is known with certainty. It is on record, 
however, that he entered the army as a cadet in his 25th 
year, and that he was present at the affair of Dunkeld in 
August, 1689. 1 He afterwards served under the Duke of Marl- 
borough in Queen Anne's wars, and is said to have been present 
at close upon forty different actions. A Diary which he kept 
during his various campaigns, together with numerous letters 
belonging to the same period, escaped destruction by the 
merest accident, for they had been sold to a tobacconist 
as papers of no value, when curiosity on the part of the 
purchaser led to the discovery of their true worth. It was 
these papers that supplied the principal materials for the Life 
and Diary of Lieut. -Col. J . Blackader, which was prepared 
for the press by Andrew Crichton, the biographer of his father, 
in 1824. The Diary seems to have been designed as a spiritual 
register of the writer's experiences, and it shows us piety flourish- 
ing under circumstances apparently the most adverse. Why he 

1. An account which he wrote of that obstinate encounter was printed 

and circulated in the papers of the time, and the MS. is now preserved in 

the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 


embraced a military life we are not told, but we may be sure 
that the step was not taken without due consideration. The 
immorality and profanity of the army are often referred to in 
the Diary, and it is plain that his strictness of life exposed him 
to much obloquy and reproach. He was a man, however, who 
had the courage to be singular, and his adherence to what he 
believed to be right was firm and inflexible. 

In the autumn of 1711 Col. Blackader retired from the 
army and took up his residence in Edinburgh. During his stay 
there he was elected a member of the Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge, and an elder of the College Church. 
Early in June, 1714, he removed to Stirling, where he lived the 
quiet uneventful life of a country gentleman. In 1715 he 
was unexpectedly called from his retirement to take command of 
a company of Volunteers, raised in the South and West to assist 
in quelling the insurrectionary movement set on foot by the 
friends of the young Pretender, but on the suppression of the 
Rebellion in the spring of 1716 he resumed his former retired 
pursuits. In the following year he was nominated Deputy- 
Governor of Stirling Castle, an appointment that seems to 
have been bestowed in recognition of the services he had 
rendered his country during the Rebellion, and he continued 
to hold the office until his death on 31st August, 1729. His 
remains were interred in the West Church of Stirling, within 
which, on the south wall, near the pulpit, a marble tablet has 
been erected to his memory. 


James Fisher, blind musician, composer, and author, was 
born in High Street, Moniaive, about the year 1759. He lost 
his sight by small-pox when only two years of age. Even in 
infancy he evinced a love of music, and it became not only a 
source of amusement to him, but also the chief means of gain- 
ing a sustenance in later life. Leaving Moniaive, he resided 


for a number of years at Ochiltree. During his residence 
there he wrote several epistles in rhyme to Thomas Walker, 
John Lapraik, and other "rhyme-composing brithers," some 
of whom were correspondents of Burns. These effusions he 
included in a volume entitled Poems on Various Subjects, printed 
at Dumfries in 1790. Poems, chiefly Scottish, appeared in tne 
same year, and an Elegy on the Death of David's Psalms in 
1805. In addition to his poetical works, Fisher published two 
volumes in prose, A Spring Day (1803) and A Winter Season 
(1810). The former of these was received with considerable 
favour, and is said to have passed into at least five editions. 
He likewise composed a number of tunes for the violin. 

Fisher removed from Ochiltree about 1809. His wife 
died in 1808, and is interred in Glencairn Churchyard, where 
a freestone monument bears the following curious tribute to 
her memory: 

" To the dear remembrance of Isabella, spouse to James 
Fisher, author of 'The Spring Day,' who departed this life 
April 27, 1808, having been nearly the space of 22 years his 
only pious, amiable, and affectionate wife. 

My Isabella's precious dust here lies 

In sweet repose as in a bed of rest, 

While full of joy I know 'bove yonder skies 

Her better part rejoices with the bless 'd. 

Next to her Heavenly Lord while here she lived, 

Her husband's care engrossed her thoughts and ways, 

Nor willingly, even once, him griev'd. 

This tribute due he to her memory pays." 


Alexander Clerk, farmer, Caulside, (Calside), is entitled to 
notice as the author of a small volume of poems published at 
Dumfries in 1801. The volume contains a number of meritori- 
ous pieces in Scots, amongst others a poem "On Potatoes," 


which has often been attributed although, we believe, errone- 
ously to Burns. Both the late Dr Craufurd Tait Ramage, of 
Closeburn, and the late Mr James Shaw, of Tynron, were of 
opinion that the poem was the work of Clerk, and the use of the 
word "cronie" 1 in the opening stanza certainly points to a 
Dumfriesshire rather than to an Ayrshire origin. 

" Gude day ! my auld acquaintance, cronie, 
I'm blyth to see thee bloomin' bonny; 
O' fruits an' flow'rs there are na mony 

Compar'd wi' thee, 
I question much if there be ony, 

At least wi' me." 

The family stone in Glencairn Churchyard is inscribed as 
follows : 

" In memory of Robert Clerk, who died in Calside, August 
13th, 1800, aged 65 years. Also of Margret Sharp, his 
spouse, who died March llth, 1799, aged 61 years. Also his 
son, Alexander Clark (sic), who died at Dumfries, 5th Novem- 
ber, 1808, aged 46 years. Also Ketron Hastings, his wife, 
who died 12th August, 1810, aged 34 years. Also John Clark, 
son of Robert Clark, who died at Hillside, Parish of Keir, 
aged 39 years." 


This eminent divine was born at Old Crawfordton, Glen- 
cairn, in the year 1786. He was only six years of age when 
his father died. The family was then in straitened circum- 
stances, although there is good reason to believe that at a later 
date Dr Gordon was regarded by his friends as the rightful heir 
to the title and lands of Kenmure. With characteristic 
modesty and devotion to his work, however, he would take 
no step to establish his claim. Naturally the widowed mother 
1. Crony, a potato, Dumfr. (Jamieson). 


was concerned for her boy's education, and she felt greatly 
relieved when a kind-hearted schoolmaster in the neighbouring 
parish of Tynron offered to teach him free of charge. Robert 
would seem to have made good use of his opportunities, for, nine 
years later, he was appointed master of the school at Kirkland in 
his native parish, a position his father had held before him. He 
afterwards filled a more important educational appointment at 
Perth, and finally prepared for the ministry, first at Aberdeen, 
and afterwards at Edinburgh. In 1816 he was ordained parish 
minister of Kinfauns. Four years later he was translated to 
St. Cuthbert's Parish, Buccleuch Street, Edinburgh. He was 
subsequently called in rapid succession to Hope Park Church, 
the new North Church, and finally in 1830 to the High Church, 
Edinburgh, a charge then considered the first in the Church of 
Scotland. Dr Gordon presided at the great Convocation in 
Edinburgh in November, 1842, called to consider the crisis 
that had arisen in the Church, and it was generally admitted 
that his solemn words of address gave a fitting tone and charac- 
ter to the proceedings on that momentous occasion. At the 
Disruption he left the Established Church, and he was followed 
by nearly the whole of his large congregation. A list of his 
published writings will be found in the Bibliography (Appendix 
C). He died at Edinburgh on the 21st October, 1853. His 
death, it has been said, "deprived the Church of Christ of one 
of its brightest ornaments and strongest pillars." 


William Bennet, poet and journalist, was born near Bar- 
buie, Moniaive, 29th September, 1802. From boyhood he 
was fond of rhyming, and in his nineteenth year he published 
a volume of verse, entitled The Sabbath, and other Poems. In 
that volume the author's name appears as "Bennoch," 
but in subsequent works the spelling was altered to 
"Bennet." About the time of this first venture in authorship 


he was a frequent contributor to the Dumfries Courier, and in 
1825-26 he conducted the Dumfries Monthly Magazine. 
Towards the close of 1826 he accepted the editorship of a 
Liberal newspaper called the Glasgow Free Press, but he after- 
wards withdrew from the Liberal party and conducted a Con- 
servative journal, The Glasgow Constitutional. Sennet's Glas- 
gow Magazine was founded by him in 1832. In addition to the 
volume mentioned, he published, Traits of Scottish Life and 
Pictures of Scenes and Character (1830), Songs of Solitude 
(1831), 'The Chief of Glen Orchay, a poem in five cantos 
(1840), and Sketches of the Isle of Man. 

After residing successively in Ireland and in England, Mr 
Bennet took up his abode at Burntisland, where he devoted 
upwards of twenty-five years of his life to a new translation of 
the Scriptures. Although a few specimens of the fruits of his 
labours were published anonymously in 1875 under the title, 
Truth Unlocked, by a Pioneer Witness, the stupendous task was 
never completed. Mr Bennet died at Edinburgh, whither he 
had removed, on 3rd June, 1882. He is interred beside his 
wife in the cemetery at Burntisland. 

John Inglis, the distinguished missionary, was born in 
Ayr Street, Moniaive, 8th July, 1808. He received his 
early education at the village school, and after working for 
a time as a mason he formed the design of entering the ministry, 
and was enrolled a student of Glasgow University. On com- 
pleting his studies he was licensed by the Reformed Presby- 
terian Presbytery of Paisley in 1842. In 1844 he went to New 
Zealand as a missionary to the Maoris. Eight years later he 
proceeded to Aneityum, the most southerly of the New Hebrides 
group of islands, and it is as the apostle of the New Hebrides 
that John Inglis deserves to be remembered. When he set 
foot on the island of Aneityum the natives were heathen canni- 


bals. When he left it twenty-five years later the whole island 
had been brought under Christian influence. 

Dr Inglis, on returning to Scotland, passed through the 
press a translation of the Scriptures into Aneityumese. He 
likewise published Reminiscences of Missionary Life and Work 
in the New Hebrides (1887) and Bible Illustrations from the 
New Hebrides (1890). The degree of D.D. was conferred on 
him by the Senatus of Glasgow University in 1883. He died 
at Lincuan Cottage, Kirkcowan, Wigtownshire, 18th July, 
1891, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. 


William France, second son of the Rev. James France, 
minister of the Secession Church at Moniaive, was born 31st 
December, 1809. On his being licensed to preach no fewer 
than three competing calls were addressed to him by con- 
gregations in Cupar, Dunfermline, and Paisley. By the de- 
cision of the Synod, which then determined appointments in 
such cases, the calls from Cupar and Dunfermline were set 
aside, and the call from Paisley sustained. Mr France was 
accordingly ordained by the Presbytery of Glasgow to be 
colleague and successor to Dr Ferrier, Oakshaw Street United 
Secession Church, Paisley, on 2nd July, 1833. 

During a ministry extending to close upon forty-eight years 
Mr France took an active part in the business of the large and 
influential Presbytery of Paisley and Greenock. He likewise 
fulfilled many important duties in the committees of the Church. 
In 1877 he had the honour of being called to occupy the 
Moderator's chair of the Supreme Court, and it was generally 
agreed that he discharged the duties of his high office with 
conspicuous ability. He died April 20th, 1881, and was laid 
to rest in Paisley Cemetery. 

Alexander Grierson was born at Bankhead, Glencairn, on 


27th October, 1817. His father, Alexander Grierson, was 
descended from a Covenanting family, the Griersons of 
Lochenkit, while his mother, Margaret Cunningham, was a 
woman of true piety. Alexander was the youngest of a family 
of nine. He early developed a taste for books, and on leaving 
Crossford School, Glencairn, he was enrolled as a pupil at 
Dumfries Academy. He carried off many prizes, and at the 
time of leaving the Academy he was the first Latin scholar of 
the year. In 1830 his father left Bankhead and entered upon 
a tenancy of the neighbouring farm of Straith. The Rev. Dr 
Gordon, already mentioned, was a frequent visitor at Straith, 
and Alexander was wont to declare that Dr Gordon's high- 
toned conversation was a source of deep and abiding influence. 
On recovering from a protracted attack of typhus fever, he 
entered Glasgow College as a student at the opening of the 
session of 1835-6. Shortly afterwards he accepted a temporary 
appointment as mathematical master in Wigtown Academy. 
In the session of 1838-9 he returned to college, and at the 
close of 1842 he received the degree of Master of Arts with 
Honours. He then proceeded to Edinburgh, and completed 
his studies in the Edinburgh Divinity Hall under Dr Chalmers. 
When the Disruption came Mr Grierson joined the Free 
Church. In May, 1844, a unanimous call was addressed to 
him by the Free Church Congregation at Irongray, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. He received a similar call from Ecclefechan, 
Dumfriesshire, but many circumstances combined to determine 
him in favour of Irongray, and his ordination there took place 
on 4th July, 1844. Devoted to his work, and winning the 
respect of his people, he spent a very happy life at Irongray. 
Mr Grierson was twice married: first to Miss Jessie Hyndman 
Miller, daughter of Alexander Miller, merchant, Glasgow, and 
afterwards to Miss Anne Hodge, daughter of Archibald Hodge, 
accountant, Paisley. He died 5th May, 1880, and was buried 


in Glencairn Churchyard, where a plain granite stone marks nis 


John Hyslop, "The Postman Poet," was born at Kirk- 
land, Glencairn, 9th February, 1837. His father was a 
labourer in the employment of Sir Robert Laurie of Maxwelton 
at a wage of between eight and ten shillings a week, and the 
boy's education, according to Murdoch, was " all compressed 
within one year. . . . mostly spent at an auld wife's 
village schule." 1 In 1852 the family removed to Kilmarnock. 
There John obtained employment as a letter carrier, and he 
continued to act in that capacity until shortly before his death 
in April, 1892. A small volume of poems from his pen was 
published in 1882, and a memorial volume, containing his 
collected verses, appeared in 1895. He is allotted a place in 
Murdoch's Living Poets of Scotland, where his poem, " Fever 
Stricken," and other products of his muse, are mentioned with 

Shortly before his death he contributed a set of verses, 
entitled "The King has called me," to the columns of the 
Kilmarnock Standard, which we here quote in full. 


The King has called me to his side to-night, 
Bring me white garments raiment pure as snow, 
For all things must be clean, within, without, 
When I into His Presence-chamber go 
To praise His name who now has stoop'd so low. 

Two shining ones but now His message brought 
Here to this lower room wherein I dwell, 
And, while their glory flooded all the place, 
They said in tones clear as a silver bell, 
" The Master calls for you, and all is well." 
1. Recent and Living Scotch Poets, 1881, 


I hear the music in the upper rooms, 

My soul like pent bird panteth to be free ; 

When that has passed beyond life's prisoning bars, 

Then burn or bury, do what pleaseth thee 

With the worn cage that is no longer me, 

For I shall neither know, nor hear, nor see. 

O'er the cold clod where for a space I dwelt 
No loud lamentings make, nor sob, nor groan, 
No useless flood of tears, nor vain regrets, 
Nor wringing hands for me when I am gone. 
Through death's dark vale and up the golden stairs ; 
Christ's hand in mine, I go not forth alone, 
But go to meet the King upon His Throne. 

Sometimes, perchance, amid the hurrying years, 

With friends in shady nook or wooded glen, 

You'll say, " He coined his soul's best thoughts in words, 

And sent them rushing through his ready pen 

In songs of hope to cheer his fellow-men." 

If any songs of all the songs I've sung 
Make any music where life's discord mars 
God's harmonies, and through the souls of men 
Goes echoing on to heal some hidden scars, 
Then I shall hear it from beyond the stars ! 

(10) WALTER PATON, J.P., D.L. 

Walter Paton was born at Dunreggan, Moniaive, in 1838. 
Leaving his native village in his fifteenth year, he went to 
Glasgow, Where he entered the employment of Messrs David 
Black & Co., wholesale warehousemen. Five or six years later 
he started business as a retail draper on his own account, first 
in High Street, and afterwards in Jamaica Street. Subse- 
quently he entered the wholesale trade, and at the time of his 
death he was a partner in the firms of Messrs Walter Paton & 


Co., general warehousemen, and Messrs Paton & Moultrie, oiled 
garment manufacturers, both of Virginia Street, Glasgow. 

Mr Paton was a shareholder in the City of Glasgow Bank, 
and suffered severe financial losses when that ill-starred concern 
came to grief. In 1884 he was elected a member of the Town 
Council of Glasgow. Four years later he was raised to the 
magisterial bench. When the municipalisation of the tramways 
came up for consideration he was made convener of the new 
Tramways Committee, and under his vigorous management the 
former horse haulage system was converted into the present 
successful electric system. He thus earned for himself the 
familiar cognomen of "the pioneer of the cars." Among his 
other activities Mr Paton was a member of the Govan Parochial 
Board, of the Clyde Trust, and of Hutcheson's Educational 
Trust. He was also a Justice of the Peace for the City of 
Glasgow. As an elder of Pollokshields West United Free 
Church he took an active part in Mission work, especially 
amongst the young. In 1904 he was presented by a large body 
of subscribers with his portrait in oils, and other testimonials, 
in recognition of his valuable public services. 

He died at his residence, Strathcairn, Aytoun Road, 
Pollokshields, on May 25th, 1906, and was laid to rest in the 
Necropolis of the city he had served so well. 


John Dalziel, of the Free Church Mission, Nagpur, India, 
deserves mention as a worthy son of the parish. Born 14th 
February, 1838, he decided while still a young man to devote 
himself to Mission work, and proceeded to India. After 
labouring for several years with devotion as a catechist or 
teacher, he died of cholera at his post, 13th November, 1876, 
aged thirty-eight years. He was survived by a widow and a 
family of two sons and four daughters. Both of the sons 
became doctors, one in Nigeria, the other in Calcutta. One of 


the daughters elected to follow in her father's footsteps, and 
entered upon Mission work at Calcutta, where she died. The 
other members of the family are now resident in Edinburgh. 


Alexander Todd was born at Moniaive, 13th October, 
1845. His father was a mason to trade, and Alexander, when 
studying for the ministry, supported himself by following the 
same calling. Thus, as a working mason, he helped to build 
the walls of the new Glasgow University, Gilmorehill, within 
which he was afterwards to study. While attending college he 
took an active part in evangelistic work, and he deserves to be 
remembered as one of the noble band of workers who pene- 
trated the wynds and closes of Glasgow, and helped to set the 
housing of the poor in the forefront of the burning questions of 
the day. 

In 1876 he was ordained by the Presbytery of Glasgow as a 
Missionary to Madras. After a brief period of service he, with 
the sanction of the Foreign Missions Committee, transferred his 
labours to Chingleput, where he conducted a successful Mission 
until loss of health compelled him to return home. Failing 
to regain health in Scotland, he was urged to go to New 
Zealand, and he sailed for that country in 1882. He bene- 
fited so much by the change that he was soon able to accept 
a charge in North East Valley. Thereafter he was called to 
the pastorate of Hampden congregation, where he laboured, 
happy in the esteem and love of his people, until his death, 
10th February, 1887. He was buried where he died, and his 
attached congregation have since erected to his memory a 
granite monument, which bears the inscription: 


3n dfcemorg of 

who died at the Manse, Hampden, 

10th February, 1887, Aged 41 Years. 

And of his Daughter 

Who died 13th October, 1886, 

Aged Eight Months. 


Robert Mackill, founder of the firm of Robert Mackill 
& Co., shipowners, Glasgow, was born at Dungalston, near 
Moniaive, in 1848. On leaving his native parish he entered 
the office of Messrs Burrell & Son, Glasgow, of which firm he 
eventually became a partner. In 1881 he started the firm of 
Robert Mackill & Co., and under his management as senior 
partner a large commercial connection was soon formed. 

Although it was only at rare intervals that Mr Mackill 
visited Glencairn, he never ceased to take a warm interest in 
the parish. Almost from the commencement of the Glencairn 
and Tynron Horticultural Society he offered a number of prizes 
annually for the encouragement of horticulture in the district-, 
and in 1898 he gifted three stained glass windows to Glencairn 
Free Church, primarily as a memorial of his father and mother, 
but likewise as a token of his love for the home and the Church 
of his youth. He died at Glasgow, 12th March, 1906, in his 
fifty-eighth year. 

Before leaving this part of our subject we must refer to 
one who, although not born in Glencairn, was long prominently 
associated with the life of the parish. We refer to the late 
Colonel Sir George Gustavus Walker of Crawfordton. Sir 
George succeeded to the estate of Crawfordton on the death 


of his father, Mr John Walker, D.L., in 1857. He afterwards 
purchased Jarbruck and the Hill of Peelton, and on the latter 
property he built in 1863-66 a handsome mansion, where he 
resided until his death on 5th August, 1897. Sir George's 
public life began in 1855, when he joined the Dumfries- 
shire Militia, at the age of twenty-five, with the rank of 
Captain. He afterwards devoted a large part of his time to 
developing and perfecting the defensive forces of the country. 
In 1859 he appeared in the political arena as an independent 
candidate for ' the Dumfries Burghs, against the late Mr 
William Ewart. Although unsuccessful at the poll on that 
occasion, he was returned unopposed as member for the County 
in 1865 in succession to the late Mr Hope-Johnstone of Annan- 
dale. He had the distinction of being appointed Aide-de- 
Camp to the Queen in 1884, and knighthood was conferred 
upon him in 1892. The following appreciation by one who 
knew him intimately forms a fitting tribute to his memory: 
" There was in him an instinctive hatred of anything that bor- 
dered upon duplicity and time-serving, and he would condemn 
such conduct in language forcible and true. He knew what 
he felt and meant himself, and he took care that others knew 
it also. Such thorough-going, outspoken honesty is especially 
valuable in a soft and selfish age, when principle often gives 
way to expediency, and men ask not what is right and what 
is true, but what is easy and profitable and likely to bring in a 
quick return. ... As long as health and strength were 
given him he wrought loyally for others, for home and family, 
for country, and for Queen ; now he rests from his labours, and 
his works do follow him." 1 

It only remains to indicate briefly how the parish is taking 
part in the life and work of the present day. It will be seen 
that Glencairn is represented by her living sons and daughters 
1. The Rev. Sir Emilius Laurie, Bart., B.D. In Memoriam Sermon. 


in many spheres. In the Church we have the Rev. William 
Neve Monteith, B.D., parish minister of Elie; the Rev. Hugh 
Carmichael Walker, M.A., rector of Wooton, Canterbury; also 
the Rev. Charles Henley Walker, M.A., who, along with two 
sisters, Jessie Eleanor and Edith Maud, is engaged in missionary 
work in India ; while in the lay part of Church work, in agricul- 
ture, in parish and county government, and other spheres for 
we can mention only a few of his activities we have William 
Barber, Esq. of Tererran, M.A., J.P. The medical profession 
is represented by Professor James T. Wilson, of Sydney Univer- 
sity; and by Doctors Borrowman, Proudfoot, Blackley, Kidd, 
and Monteith ; nursing by Miss Mabel Caroline Walker, formerly 
matron Soldiers' Home, Pietermaritzburg, now matron Soldiers' 
Home, York ; education by Mr James Fergusson^Morpeth ; 
journalism by Mr William Fergusson, Manchester, 1 and Mr 
William Dickie,Wsub-editor of the Dumfries and. Galloway 
Standard; the navy by Frederick Murray Walker, Commander 
R.N. ; the army by Captain James Charles Walter Connell, 1st 
Battalion King's Own Scottish Borderers; Major William M'Call 
of Bardennoch, 3rd Battalion K.O.S.B. ; Captain John C. Mon- 
teith, 1st Battalion Bedfordshire Regiment; Captain George 
Laurie Walker of Crawfordton, late Captain Argyle and Suther- 
land Highlanders ; and Colonel Claude Villiers Emilius Laurie, 
C.B., D.S.O., late Commanding Officer 3rd Battalion K.O.S.B., 
a worthy foster-son of the parish. Outside the professions there 
are many who hold responsible appointments in the Civil Service 
or fill positions of trust in the commercial sphere. As time 
passes on we doubt not that other sons and daughters will arise 
to maintain the honourable record. 
_* 1. Since this reference was penned William Fergusson has passed to his rest, -f 


The transcendent fame of the poet Burns confers distinc- 
tion upon any place associated with either his personality or 
his poetry. As Glencairn was one of the Dumfriesshire 
parishes over which he exercised supervision as an exciseman, 
and Crossford one of the places regularly visited by him 
in the discharge of his official duties, the poet-gauger's con- 
nection with the parish may be said to have been of a some- 
what intimate character. Whether Burns in the course of his 
visits entered Glencairn from the south by way of Dunscore, or 
from the north by way of Tynron, cannot be stated with cer- 
tainty. Part of an Excise book is in existence in which the 
places of call appear in the following order: "Thornhill, 
Penpont, Cairnmill, Tyneron, Crossford, Dunscore." This 
probably implies that he travelled up the valley of the Nith, 
and returned by the valley of the Cairn. Be that as it may, 
his visits to Crossford must often have brought him into contact 
with such friends as Riddell of Glenriddell, Laurie of Maxwel- 
ton, and Fergusson of Craigdarroch, and it may safely be 
assumed that to the poet Glencairn had other memories than 
those associated with 

" Searching auld wives' barrels, 
Och, hon! the day!" 

It is to this period that the song of " The Whistle " belongs, 
and although the scene of the famous bacchanalian contest 
which it celebrates was Friars' Carse, in Dunscore parish, the 
contestants who were the three gentlemen we have just named 
were all connected territorially with Glencairn. The 
"minute of bett " possesses a curious interest, and may here 
be quoted: 

" The whistle gained by Sir Robert Laurie (now) in posses- 


sion of Mr Riddell of Glenriddel, is to be ascertained to the 
heirs of the said Sir Robert now existing, being Sir Robert 
Laurie, Mr Riddell of Glenriddel, and Mr Fergusson of Craig- 
darroch, to be settled under the arbitration of Mr Jn. M'Murdo, 
the business to be decided at Carse, the 16th of October, 1789. 

" Cowhill, 10th October, 1789. 

" JNO. M'Murdo accepts as judge. 

" GEO. JOHNSTON, witness, to be present. 

"PATRICK MILLER, witness, to be pre. if possible." 


The victor in the strange contest was Mr Alex. Fergusson, 
and the whistle upon which he blew the " requiem shrill ' ' of 
the competitors he had vanquished is now among the heirlooms 
of the Fergusson family. It is of interest to notice that the 
first Scottish winner of the trophy, of whom we have any know- 
ledge, was the father of " bonnie Annie Laurie," and that the 
historic contest, sung by Burns, was between two of Annie 
Laurie's grand-nephews and a grandson. 

There are other passages in the poet's published writings 
that link his verse to Glencairn. The set of elegiac verses 

" Fate gave the word, the arrow sped, ' ' 
was addressed by the poet to Mrs Fergusson of Craigdarroch 


on the death of her son, a young man of promise. His friend 
and patron Robert Riddell of Glenriddell has been honoured in 
no fewer than four sets of verses. There are likewise verses 
addressed to Mr William Nicol and Mrs Walter Riddell. It 
was long believed that Lagganpark, in Glencairn, was the 
scene of the convivial meeting celebrated by Burns in the 
song, "Willie brewed a peck o' maut," but Dr Currie's state- 
ment on this point may now be considered discredited. If the 
meeting really took place at Laggan it is difficult to conceive 
what object the poet could have had in saying " the meeting was 
held at Moffat." 1 Moreover, William Nicol did not purchase 
Laggan until the end of March, 1790, and as two verses of the 
song are quoted by Burns in a letter written in October of the 
previous year, it seems reasonably certain that Dr Currie is in 
error when he says that the verses were written in honour of 
William Nicol's house-heating on entering the farm of Laggan. 
To Glencairn, however, undoubtedly belongs the distinc- 
tion of having furnished Burns with the only subject that ever 
seriously engaged his attention as a would-be dramatist. 
Writing to the Countess of Glencairn from Ellisland in Decem- 
ber, 1789, he says: " I have turned my thoughts on the drama. 
. . . . Does not your ladyship think that an Edinburgh 
theatre would be more amused with affectation, folly, and 
whim of true Scottish growth than manners which by far the 
greatest part of the audience can only know at second hand?" 
Chambers suggests that the poet's ambition in the direction of 
the drama had been stimulated by reading English plays and 
visiting the Dumfries theatre; but, from whatever source 
derived, it is evident from a letter written by his friend Mr 
Ramsay of Ochtertyre to Dr Currie that it was cherished for 
some considerable time. Dr Ramsay, describing a visit paid to 
the poet in the autumn of 1790, says: "We fell into conversa- 

1. Letter to Cax>tain RiddeU, 16th Oct., 1789. 


tion directly and soon got into the mare magnum of poetry. 
He told me that he had now gotten a story for a drama, which 
he was to call Rob Macquechan' s Elshon, from a popular story 
of Robert Bruce being defeated on the water of Cairn, when 
the heel of his boot having loosened in flight he applied to 
Robert Macquechan to fit it, who, to make sure, ran his awl 
nine inches up the King's heel." "What," says Chambers, 
" even so lively a wit could have made of such an incident as 
Rob Macquechan 's elshon we cannot tell. It does not seem to 
have ever gone beyond an intention." 

It is possible, however, that there were details in the story 
not mentioned by Dr Currie's correspondent, and in this connec- 
tion it is interesting to compare the legend as we have it to-day 
with the version given by Mr Ramsay. M'Caughie this, it 
appears, is the correct form of the name was a cobbler to trade 
and very deaf. When King Robert the Bruce asked for repairs 
to his boot heel the cobbler replied "Dae what?" (do what?). 
The request was repeated, but with no better result. Out of 
patience with the apparently dull-witted cobbler, the King in a 
loud and somewhat peremptory tone again stated his request. 
This time the cobbler understood what was wanted, and not only 
undertook the job but also performed it so well that the Bruce 
bestowed upon him a grant of lands to be called Dae-what 
(Dalwhat). This story, it need scarcely be said, is more 
ingenious than reliable. The place-name Dalwhat is almost 
certainly far older than the days of King Robert the Bruce, and 
its meaning as given elsewhere, if less romantic, is certainly 
far more illuminative. 1 

1. It does nob follow that Bruce never visited Glencairn. On the 
contrary, traditions of his presence in the parish are extremely persistent, 
and whether or not we accept the highly circumstantial account given by 
John Gordon Barbour in his Unique Traditions of an engagement with 
the English a little to the east of Moniaive, in which Bruce personally 
commanded, it is at least probable that the brave assertor of Scottish 
independence must often have passed through the parish in the course of 
his journeyings between Ayrshire and the south-west of Scotland. In 


The Rev. Dr King Hewison, of Rothesay, a recognised 
authority on literary and antiquarian subjects, has recently 
suggested that Burns 's "Address to the Deil " is associated with 
Glencairn. He thinks it probable that the poet derived his 
inspiration from an account 1 published (Glasgow, 1772) by John 
Stevenson, Land Labourer, of a personal encounter which he 
had with Satan in the policies of Craigdarroch. The poem 
certainly contains verses that recall Stevenson's curious account, 
and it is noteworthy that the idea of the Address was suggested 
to Burns, as he himself declares, by " running over in his mind 
the many ludicrous accounts and representations we have from 
various quarters of this august personage." The point, unfor- 
tunately, does not admit of verification. Once more, Burns 's 
references to James, Earl of Glencairn, are of interest as 
addressed to one who derived his title from the parish. Deep 
as the poet's obligations to that estimable nobleman un- 
doubtedly were, they have been amply discharged, for he has 
embalmed his memory in imperishable verse. 

" The bridegroom may forget the bride, 

Was made his wedded wife yestreen ; 
The monarch may forget the crown 

That on his head an hour has been ; 
The mother may forget the child 

That smiles sae sweetly on her knee; 
But I'll remember thee, Glencairn, 

An' a' that thou hast done for me!" 

Bain's Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland (Vol. II., p. 311) we 
find an interesting reference to the presence of the Scots army in the 
near neighbourhood of Glencairn in the autumn of 1301. " William de 
Dorem his bachelor, to the K, Informs him that this Monday next after 
the feast of St. Matthew, a spy came to him at Peblys from Nithsdale, and 
told him for certain that the Scots who were in Galloway had retreated 
towards Nithsdale, and this Sunday last were at ' les Kellys," and would 
be on Monday after at Glencarn, but whither from thence they would 
' draw,' he did not certify him. Whereon he sent the news at once to 
all the K.'s garrisons, that they should be careful of the K.'s ordnances 
and honour as lately commanded, by God's aid." 

1. A Rare Soul- Strengthening and Comfortiny Cordial for Old and Youny 



The chief industry of the parish is agriculture. Down to 
near the close of the eighteenth century the soil was cultivated 
in an extremely primitive fashion. In illustration of this it may 
be mentioned that less than a hundred years ago men and even 
women were occasionally yoked to the plough and the harrow 
in much the same way as horses are yoked to-day. An intelli- 
gent villager, still living, remembers seeing the whole of a large 
feu at the Neiss cultivated in this fashion, a mother and her 
daughter being yoked to the plough, while a male member of 
the' family held the shafts. In another instance, still more 
recent, all the harrowing of a considerable plot of ground in the 
neighbourhood of Moniaive was done by one of the daughters of 
the family dragging a large bundle of thorns, weighted with 
stones, over the surface of the ground. It may be readily 
understood that the crops raised under such simple methods of 
tillage were extremely poor. 

The more intelligent farmers were beginning to shake 
off the fetters of custom, however, and a great impetus was 
given in this direction by the establishment in 1784 of the High- 
land and Agricultural Society of Scotland. This Society, by 
means of its publications, induced land-owners to consider the 
possibility of improving their estates, and in a short time a new 
interest began to be taken, not only in the improvement of land, 
but also in all else that concerned the pursuit of agriculture. 
"Soon after the second Rebellion," says M'Dowall, "increased 
attention was paid to tillage by the farmers of Nithsdale. 
Fields were enclosed, waste lands were reclaimed; shell-marl 
and lime lent their fertilizing influence to the soil." 1 There 
1. History of Dumfries, 3rd Edition, p. 600. 


were some, however, who refused to be influenced by such 
"giddy-headed projectors," and there were others who, while 
less conservative, were either too dull-witted or too indolent to 
profit by the example of their more enterprising neighbours. 
An individual of the latter class is said to have conveyed a load 
of lime to the centre of one of his fields, where, having dumped 
it down, he remarked, with the air of one who had done all that 
could reasonably be expected of him, " There, that shou'd 
shairly warm your auld hairt." Other mistakes of a more excus- 
able kind were made. Thus, some were tempted by the wonder- 
ful results produced to carry the system of liming too far, and 
we are told that the consequences were in many instances dis- 

Simultaneously with improved methods of cultivation, the 
erection of march and sub-division fences became general. 
This conferred two distinct benefits upon the farmer. It re- 
duced the labour of tending cattle, and it helped to clear the 
land of a superabundance of stones. Stone fences are now 
being replaced to a large extent by wooden palings, but we are 
disposed to agree with the shrewd old farmer who was quoted 
one day in our hearing : " I like a stane. dyke ; when it tumbles 
doon there's aye something left to begin wi' again." 

Although oats was the principal crop, wheat, barley, pease, 
and beans were all grown to a limited extent. Small plots of 
flax were likewise cultivated, the portion of ground set apart 
for this purpose being called the " hemp rig." When this crop 
was ripe, it was tied in sheaves and stocked for a few days. It 
was then steeped in one or other of the lint wells, which were 
to be found in the parish, and was allowed to remain there until 
the "souring" process, as it was called, had proceeded far 
enough. The flax was then dried and sent to the mill to be 
converted into lint. It may be of interest to mention that Cors- 
molloch spring, in the neighbourhood of Moniaive, was long in 
favour as a place for the steeping of lint. The nearest lint mill 


appears to have been in Dunscore parish. The lint was after- 
wards spun, during the long winter evenings, on the "wee wheel" 
at home. Out of the coarser sorts "harn" shirts were made 
for the men, while the finer qualities were woven into linen for 
napery, an important part of the " plenishing " that every bride 
was expected to contribute towards the equipment of her future 
home. There are families in the district that still possess speci- 
mens of this home-made linen. These they rightly prize, for 
the articles are of beautiful design and workmanship, and prove 
that the art of home weaving had been brought to a high degree 
of perfection. Down to the latter part of the eighteenth century 
the manufacture of linen continued to occupy an important posi- 
tion amongst the domestic industries, but from that time onward 
it steadily declined. 

Mention must be made of another class of remains asso- 
ciated with agriculture. We refer to the kilns or "killogies," 
which the farmers used for drying their grain before grinding it 
into meal. These interesting structures, although by no means 
uncommon, so often resemble a natural depression in the ground 
that they may easily be overlooked. Well-defined examples 
may be seen on the lands of Marwhirn and Crawfordton in 
Glencairn, and on the lands of Shillingland in Dunscore, close 
to where that parish marches with Glencairn. 

Glencairn was prominently identified with another, and, for 
a time at least, important branch of agricultural industry, 
namely, the droving of cattle to England. A more or less inter- 
mittent trade of this kind had apparently existed in the district 
from about the middle of the eighteenth century, but it was not 
till the century was near a close that the trade reached its 
highest development. At that time, according to the estimate 
of Sir John Sinclair, about 100,000 head of cattle were sent to 
England yearly from Scotland, and of that number we know 
that a large proportion possibly not less than one-sixth was 


contributed by the three south-western counties. The trade 
was in the main profitable, but it was liable to great vicissitudes. 
Messrs Smith of Jarbruck, Glencairn, were its principal local 
representatives. When a sufficient number of cattle had been 
bought, they were collected into droves to be dispatched, under 
the care of a "topsman" on horseback and a number of 
assistants on foot, to the English markets. An old villager, 
now deceased, remembered seeing a drove that extended from 
Jarbruck to Dunscore, a distance of between five and six miles. 
Although vehicular traffic at that time was much less common 
than it now is, the management of such a large herd must have 
been a task of no little difficulty, and the wonder is that losses 
from mishap were so few. 


Among the women and girls of the community muslin em- 
broidery or "flowering," as it was called, was largely practised 
in Glencairn. The importance of the industry may be gathered 
from the fact that "during the first six months of 1853, one 
Glasgow house alone paid 90,000 to muslin sewers scattered 
over the country." 1 Flowering, of course, was much less 
exacting, physically, than field labour. Hence, when some 
amazon of the harvest rig wanted to show her contempt for a 
lagging fellow-worker she was wont to declare, " Hets, ye 're nae 
better than a Moniaive floorer." It is of interest to know that 
down to little more than forty years ago a .village dame con- 
tinued to collect " wabs " of flowering to be transmitted to firms 
trading in this class of goods. 

Hand knitting was another common occupation of the 

people, and it seems to have been engaged in without distinction 

of sex or class. A few other industries, most, if not all, of 

which are now extinct, were carried on to a limited extent in 

1. Great Industries of Great Britain, 


the parish; namely, weaving, coopering, thatching, basket- 
making, candle-making, nail-making, and slate quarrying. Of 
these, weaving was undoubtedly the most important, a consider- 
able number finding employment in weaving the yarns spun in 
the households of farmers, tradesmen, and others, into cloth 
for the use of their families. Work of this kind was well paid, 
and to become a weaver was often the height of a village boy's 
ambition. An apprentice on entering upon work had to sign an 
"Indenture," and on leaving he received a "Discharge." By 
the courtesy of Mr John Crinean, ex-Registrar, we are able to 
subjoin a copy of a document of the latter class. This may 
serve to illustrate an almost forgotten phase of village life. 

WEAVER, 1776. 

I, James Muirhead, Weaver in Minihive, 

WHEREAS John Muirhead, likewise in Minihive, my Brother, 
hath for the space of FOUR years immediately preceding the 
term of Lammas last, Conform to Contract and Agreement 
made and Entered into by me with him for that Effect, faith- 
fully, honestly, and truly, as a Servant and Apprentice, served 
me the said James Muirhead in my Art, Trade, and Calling of 
Weaver-work; With which Service and Apprenticeship I hereby 
hold me well content and satisfied, and renounce all Objections 
and exceptions in the contrary ; THEREFORE WIT YE ME the said 
James Muirhead to have exonered, quitclaimed and discharged, 
As by these presents I exoner, quitclaim and discharge the said 
John Muirhead, my Apprentice foresaid, of all Clags and 
Claims, Debts and Sums of money in name of 'Prenticefee, or 
other prestations whatever, Exigible by me of him by and 
through his said Service and Apprenticeship allenarly; And of 
all Action and purguit aniwise competent to me for the same. 
And I hereby bind and oblige myself to reiterate and renew this 


present Discharge upon paper duly stamped, if required by him, 
and that at his sole Charges and Expenses; Amplifying and 
enlarging the same with a Clause Warrandice from me, my 
Heirs and Executors, to the said John Muirhead and his Heirs 
and Executors, Clause of Registration, and all other Clauses 
needful for their further and full security in the premisses. 
And in testimony thereof I have subscribed these Presents, 
written upon this and the preceeding page by Robert Davidson, 
Postmaster at Minihive, this TENTH day of December, One 
Thousand seven hundred and seventy-six years, before these 
Witnesses, William Wallace, Robert Hunter, and James Max- 
well, all Weavers in Minihive. 



To-day Glencairn is chiefly famous for its sheep-walks. 
During the last twenty years there has been a tendency to 
replace Cheviot or Whiteface sheep by the Blackface breed, 
thus reversing the tendency that Mr Smith says 1 was apparent 
in 1876. It is possible that the recent advance in the value of 
Cheviot wool will act as a check upon any further development 
in the same direction, but at the present time we believe that 
fully one-half of the sheep stocks in Glencairn are of the Black- 
face variety. 

The favourite breed of cattle is the Ayrshire. The late 
Mr James M'Millan of Woodlea was unceasing in his efforts to 
improve and popularise this valuable breed, and to-day there 
are few parishes in which the Ayrshire may be seen in greater 
perfection. At the annual sales of Ayrshire calving heifers 
held at Castle-Douglas, those from Tererran have invariably 
taken a prominent place, not seldom heading the list of 
averages. In 1909 Mr Barber's queys made a price which for 
commercial unpedigreed animals will be hard to beat, namely, 
1, Monteith's The Parish of Glencaim, p. 54. 


17 6s for twenty-four, the ten best making no less than 20 
a-piece. Other lots from Crawfordton, Shancastle, Straith, 
and Woodlea all farms in the Glencairn area realised prices 
only very slightly lower. During recent years one of the 
principal land-owners of the parish, the Rev. Sir Emilius 
Laurie, Bart, of Maxwelton, has turned his attention to the 
Ayrshire breed, and he is already known as a leading prize- 
winner at the principal district shows. Although the parish has 
long been considered most suitable for the Ayrshire, not a few 
Galloways have been seen from time to time, diversifying the 
landscape with their handsome frames and glossy coats. Mr 
Francis N. M. Gourlay founded a herd of Galloways at Two- 
merkland in 1898, largely built up by purchases from the famous 
stocks of Tarbreoch, Chapelton, Castlemilk, Lochenkit, and 
Glasnick. Removing to Craigneston in 1906, he began to 
exhibit in 1907, and since then he has come rapidly to the front, 
both as a fancier and as an exhibitor of the breed. One of his 
animals, " Keystone " by name, was champion at the Highland 
and Agricultural Society's show at Aberdeen in 1908, and also 
the winner of premier honours for aged bulls at the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society of England's show held at Liverpool in 1910. 
To Mr Gourlay the parish is also indebted for the introduction 
of a beautiful stud of Shetland ponies, with which he has been 
a successful exhibitor at leading shows. 

For reasons that are difficult to explain dairy-farming has 
not been developed to any extent in the parish. One local 
agriculturalist, whose opinion is entitled to respect, anticipates 
the day when a flourishing butter factory will be established in 
Glencairn. As the parish is well adapted to dairying, the idea 
is in no way chimerical. The fattening of cattle, and the 
breeding and rearing of pigs, receive very little attention. 
Although farmyard fowls are generally kept, systematic poultry- 
farming is all but unknown. Now that railway facilities for the 


marketing of produce have been provided, it may reasonably be 
expected that the economic value and importance of this last 
branch of agricultural industry will become better recognised. 

The staple crops of the parish are hay, oats, turnips, and 
potatoes. As a rule, hay and oats are no more than average 
crops, but on Crawfordton home farm, and one or two other 
farms, both oat and hay crops are sometimes raised far in excess 
of the average. Turnips and potatoes are generally good. 

Modes of Husbandry : 

On arable lands a system of six-year rotation prevails. 
The course of cropping is generally as follows : First year, 
Oats after lea ; Second year, Green crop (Turnips or Potatoes) ; 
Third year, Oats after green crop ; Fourth year, Ryegrass 
(either for hay or for pasture); Fifth and sixth ytars, Pasture. 
Generally speaking, the lea corn and the green crop are liberally 
manured, and very often farmyard manure or lime is applied 
to the young grass. 

Leases : 

Leases are commonly for fifteen years, with mutual 
breaks at the end of five and ten years. On one large estate in 
the parish a system of annual leases has been introduced, but it 
is too soon to speak of the results of this departure. 

Wages : 

The Rev. William Grierson, when writing his account 
of the parish of Glencairn during the closing decade of the 
eighteenth century, concluded his references to the economic 
conditions of the parish as follows : " The charge of living, and 
the hire of labourers and servants of every denomination con- 
tinually increases. A common labourer gets 6 and some 10 
in the year besides bed, board, and washing, and 8d, or indeed, 

at some employments Is, per day, besides victuals 

If things go on as they have done for some years past, such high 


wages will doubtless become more frequent." No one will be 
disposed to question the prescience of the writer. To-day un- 
married men receive on an average 30 in the year, and women 
servants 20 to 22. Although the wages of married men have 
not risen to a corresponding extent, there has been material im- 
provement in their case also, more especially during the last 
fifty years. Shepherds now receive 50 on an average, and 
ploughmen 48. The full wage is not always paid in money; 
indeed, it is the rule to deduct a proportion for cow's grass and 
for certain quantities of meal and potatoes, but this is an 
arrangement that appears to be satisfactory to both parties. 
Lambing assistants have often to be employed for about four 
weeks in the year, and 6 to 7 with board actually as much 
as was paid about the beginning of last century for a whole 
year's work is by no means an unusual wage for this class of 
workman. Naturally, this great advance in wages has had an 
ameliorative effect upon the condition of the agricultural popula- 
tion generally. It may safely be said that the worker of to-day 
is better housed, better clothed, and better fed, and that at the 
same time he commands opportunities for healthy recreation to 
which his fellow-worker of last century was an entire stranger. 


In attempting a short, general survey of the social and 
industrial life of the parish during last century, we have to 
depend upon stray scraps of local tradition, statements in the 
parochial records, occasional references in the works of local 
writers, and the meagre details that are to be found in the 
Statistical Account of the parish. 

That the life of the people during the earlier portion of last 
century was simple and homely goes without saying. Luxury, 
as we now understand it, was almost unknown. The dwellings 
of the common people were built of stone and turf covered with 
thatch, and generally consisted of a single compartment. The 
windows were small. Owing no doubt to the window tax, 
which was imposed in 1695 and remained in force until 1851, 
they were not infrequently stuffed with straw or" fern instead of 
being filled with glass. Floors were usually earthen, only the 
passages being paved. Opposite the door of every dwelling, 
and rarely more than a few feet away, stood the " kitchen - 
midden," a mal-odorous heap of animal offal and general 
household refuse. The mode of living was in keeping with the 
houses. The principal furnishings consisted of a box-bed or 
two, a table, some stools, and a few wooden cogs and bickers. 


The poor dressed very meanly. The almost universal 
dress of middle-class gentlemen was " hodden -grey," that is, 
home-made grey, a cloth woven out of a mixture of black and 
white wool in its natural state. It was no unusual thing for a 
laird and the different members of his family to get only a single 


outfit in the year. New suits for the men and new gowns for 
the women would be provided about the "preaching time," as 
the annual Communion season was called, and these had to 
serve as " keepin' " suits or dresses, as the case might be, until 
that time twelvemonth, when they were supplanted in their 
position of honour and henceforth subjected to the tear and 
wear of ordinary work-a-day life. For head-gear the men wore 
flat cloth bonnets, often of home manufacture, and the women 
linen " toys " or mutches. We are told that towards the middle 
of last century an ambition sprung up amongst the farmers' 
wives and others of humbler station in life to possess " Leg- 
horns." Hats or bonnets of this famous straw were expensive, 
however, and the ambition was often difficult of attainment. 
Once procured, the " Leghorn " became a treasured possession. 
It was altered year after year, and after each occasion on which 
it had been worn the loops and bows of ribbon with which it 
was adorned were carefully arranged, and pieces of paper in- 
serted to keep them, if possible, in all their pristine freshness. 
This practice led to the discomfiture of one prideful dame, who, 
hurrying to get ready for church one morning, forgot all about 
the paper insets in her bonnet, and it was only when the titters 
of an amused congregation broke upon her ears that she realised 
the figure she cut. During summer the children and not a few 
of their elders went bare-headed, and not infrequently bare- 
footed as well, to kirk and to market. The no-hat cult is 
therefore no new thing. Tailors and dressmakers did the most 
of their work in the homes of their customers, a dressmaker's 
usual wage being Is per day with food, and a tailor's, Is 6d. 


Porridge and potatoes were the staple food of the people. 
Home-brewed ale, commonly called " tippenny " the price of 
the ale being twopence per Scots pint was the favourite drink. 


It was a very harmless beverage despite the eulogium passed 
upon it by Burns, 

" Wi' tippenny we fear nae evil." 

Light was supplied partly by tallow candles of home manu- 
facture, stuck in what was called "a carle" candlestick, and 
partly by oil burned in a cruisie made of iron or tin. Both the 
" carle ' ' candlestick and the cruisie have now passed into the 
category of museum curiosities. Down to the close of the 
eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century peat was 
the universal fuel. No great difficulty was experienced by the 
farmers and cottagers residing in the more hilly portions of the 
parish in obtaining supplies of this useful combustible. The 
villagers of Moniaive, however, were under the necessity of 
resorting to the Fell and Craigmuie moors, some six or seven 
miles away. This entailed an extra outlay of Is 9d to 2s 6d per 
load for cartage. The usual charge for cutting peats was Is 9d 
for four cart loads, known as the half "dark." (Darg, dark 
a certain quantity of work. Vide Jamieson). 

As peat-cutting continues to play an important, although a 
'decreasing, part in the social economy of the district, a short 
description of the process of preparing the fuel may not 
be out of place. Two methods of peat-cutting are practised, 
one in a perpendicular, the other in a horizontal direction. 
In Glencairn the perpendicular method is favoured. As 
the peats are cut they are thrown into a barrow to be conveyed 
to the place where they are to be spread to dry. This drying 
process may take a week or longer according to the weather. 
The peats are afterwards " fitted," that is, set up in cone-shaped 
stacks of four or more peats to a "fitting." They remain in 
this position perhaps two weeks or more until firm and hard. 
They are then "turn-fitted," which is simply a repetition of the 
process of fitting on an extended scale. The peats are now in 
small stacks or clumps, and no further attention is required, 


beyond rebuilding the stacks where necessary, until the fuel is 
in a fit condition to cart home. 

To the lads and lasses of a former generation the work of 
the peat field would seem to have been highly attractive. Nor 
is this to be marvelled at when we think of the opportunities 
for innocent enjoyment that this form of labour afforded. 
With the mirth and daffin by the way, the cheerful banter 
during the mid-day meal of sow'ens or sweet-milk porridge, the 
stolen moments of relaxation amid fragrant reaches of bog- 
myrtle and heath, is it surprising that young men and maidens 
should have found there more than an antidote for the laborious 
hours of rustic toil ? 


Comparatively little time appears to have been found for 
amusements. Cards and draughts were almost the only indoor 
games, and as cards were banned in many homes, it was often 
draughts or nothing. Neighbourly visits were frequent, how- 
ever, and with song, riddle, and story, supplemented sometimes 
with a dance, there was little room for irksomeness. Festival 
days and seasons, such as Hallowe'en and Hogmanay, afforded 
special opportunities of enjoyment, and seem to have been 
seized upon with avidity by the people. Burns 's description 
may be accepted as typical of such gatherings : 

" On Fasten-e'en we had a rockin', 
To ca' the crack and weave our stockin' ; 
And there was muckle fun and jokin', 

Ye need na doubt ; 
At length we had a hearty yokin' 
At sang about." 

Epistle to John Lapraik. 

Superstition was widespread. Many houses, woods, and 
bridges in the parish were supposed to be haunted, and very 


few cared to pass such places alone after nightfall. A belief 
in witches, fairies, and malevolent spirits of various kinds was 
almost universal. Hence the use of charms and amulets. A 
renowned witch " Glencairn Kate" by name figures in 
Robert Kerr's famous witch poem, "Maggy o' the Moss." 1 
She was one of four carlins who distinguished themselves on the 
night of the witches' ride through the air on broomsticks to 
attend the devil's levee. Strange customs were observed at 
births, marriages, and funerals : thus, no birth was complete 
without its " blythe-meat " or birth-feast; no marriage without 
its "riding for the broose," a race, generally on horseback, in 
which the victor was rewarded with a bottle of whisky ; 2 and no 
funeral without its dole of bread and cheese or whisky. 

Side by side with much that seems rude in the life of our 
forefathers there is not a little that calls for commendation. 
In the home, for example, a simple and earnest piety prevailed. 
Probity was rarely absent from business transactions, and it 
may be questioned whether even a more kindly feeling did not 
permeate the social relationships. Many of the maxims of our 
forefathers still linger in the district, and they discover to us a 
people shrewd, self-reliant, and withal God-fearing. We close 
our chapter with a sheaf of proverbs, very few of which have 
been gleaned either for Henderson's or for Hislop's well-known 
collection. So far as appears, indeed, some of them are 
native to the soil. 


A famine aye begins at the peat stack. 

A gaun fit aye gets. 

A man ridin' for his life will never notice it. 

1. Nicholson's Historical and Traditional Tales, 1843. 

2. Originally the prize was a bowl of brose or spice broth, hence the name 

broose or brose. 


As mim as a May paddock. 

A thochtless held gies the feet muckle to dae. 

Bend the willow when it's green 
Between the age of three and thirteen. 

Bonnie folk and ragged folk are aye bein' catched at. 

Doctors and ministers are ill 1 craws to shoot at. 
Folk that'll do nocht but speer should never be tald ony- 

Hair by hair makes the carle's held bare. 

I may rin in rags but I'll no' rin in debt. 
It's no' the rummilin' cairt that coups first. 

Jist cool in the water ye het in. 

Mony han's make speedy wark. 
Mair strict than strecht. 

Oweragain's no' forbidden. 
Rinnin' parents make lazy weans. 

Sap bodes luck. 

Shoon soles never make good uppers. 

The deil's bairns hae aye their daddy's luck. 
The last meenit's aye the hardest ca't. 2 
Them that burns you for a fule wastes their firin'. 
There's never a heich but there's a ho we. 

There's muckle to do when muirmen ride, 
There's buits and spurs and a' to provide. 

There's nocht like the auld hounds for the lang hunt. 
There's far mae marrit than keep gude hoos. 
They're aye welcome that bring. 

1. Unlucky. Another form has " kittle craws." 2. Driven. 


Walth gars folk waver. 
Writings are only for rogues. 

Ye'd better hae a sairy 1 saut-fat 2 than a giesen'd 3 girnal. 4 

Ye may hang yer meal -poke to the door, 
But Providence winna fill't afore mornin'. 

Ye're like the ill plack, ye'll come back. 

1. Sorry or poor. 2. Saltbox. 3. Shrunk and gaping through drynesa. 
4. Meal ark or chest. 



Moniaive, the principal village of the parish, is situated on 
the Dalwhat and Craigdarroch tributaries of the river Cairn. It 
is three hundred and fifty feet above sea-level, and has a popu- 
lation of between five and six hundred. The valley of the 
Cairn approaches this point with a wide and graceful sweep, 
and here the village nestles pleasantly in the lap of the green 
hills where they open their friendly arms to welcome the traveller 
into Galloway. Nature and art vie with each other in the 
attractions of the place. Minnyhive to use its former musical 
name has to be viewed from many standpoints if its varied 
aspects of beauty are to meet with just appreciation. It has, 
indeed, been sometimes described as one of the prettiest villages 
in Scotland. Any who view it from Dunreggan Hill on the 
north, from the neighbourhood of Blackstone or Ingleston on 
the south, from the boulder-strewn height of Bankhead Craigs on 
the east, or from the Golf course on the west, not to mention 
other points, will find ample reason for endorsing this opinion. 

Various suggestions have been offered as to the origin of 
the name. The prefix many or minnie is almost certainly either 
monadh, " a moor, a hill," or moine, " a moss," but the suffix is 
much more difficult. The Rev. James B. Johnston, B.D., author 
of The Place Names of Scotland, thinks that the name is derived 
from moine ghabaidh, which signifies "dangerous moss;" while 
James A. Robertson, F.S.A.,Scot., in his Gaelic Topography of 
Scotland favours monadh-abh, " the hill of the water or stream." 
With reference to the former of these derivations, it is not easy 
at the first glance to find much resemblance between ghabaidh 
and the terminal syllable in Moniaive. But this difficulty is 
greatly minimised, if indeed it be not altogether removed, when 
it is explained that, by well-known laws of aspiration, the g gets 


lost altogether, the b becomes bh or v, and the final dh is mute. 
We are disposed, however, to favour Robertson's etymology for 
the reason that it goes straight to what must be regarded as the 
outstanding physical feature of the locality, namely, its attract- 
ive combination of hill and stream. This feature, as we have 
already seen, inspired the muse of a recent poet, and we venture 
to think it would be no less likely to catch the imagination of 
our impressionable Celtic forefathers. 

At what period Moniaive came into existence as a village 
we have no means of knowing. Possibly a settlement was 
planted here in very early times. In the summer of 1904 an 
anvil stone, much marked by use, was dug up about half-a-mile 
to the east of Moniaive, and as recently as last year a perforated 
stone hammer was found within the precincts of the village 
itself. The presence of these relics goes far to prove that here, 
long before the Roman invasion, a primitive people lived, and 
fashioned their rude implements of war. 

In the sixteenth century the fourth day of January, 1560, 
to be exact we find "the brig of Mony yfe in Glencarne," re- 
ferred to as a place of assignation. 1 The existence of a bridge in 
1560 is interesting, and seems to warrant the conclusion that 
even at this early period Moniaive was a place of some import- 
ance. Our earliest authentic information, however, in regard 
to Moniaive as a village, is derived from a Charter granted in 
the reign of Charles I., erecting "The town and lands of 
Monyeve into a free burgh of barony," in favour of William, 
Earl of Dumfries, a member of the Crichton family, who at that 
time possessed considerable lands in Glencairn. By the 
courtesy of the officials, Register House, Edinburgh and 
especially of Dr J. Maitland Thomson, Curator, Historical 
Department we are able to append a copy and translation of 
this interesting document: 

1. Burrow Cort Euik (of Drumfress). 



terrarum de Monyeyve in liberum burgum baronie, etc. 

CAROLUS Dei gratia magne Britannie Francie et Hibernie Rex 
fideique defensor OMNIBUS probis hominibus totius terre sue 
clericis et laicis salutem SCIATIS quia villa et terre de Monyeve 
cum pertinentiis ad predilectum nostrum consanguineum et con- 
siliarium Willielmum Comitem de Drumfreis Vicecomitem de 
Air Dominum Crichtoun de Sanquhair hereditarie et pertinentes 
tanquam propria pars et pertinens sue baronie de Glencairnie 
jacentis infra vicecomitatum nostrum de Drumfreis per ipsum 
de nobis immediate tentis ab omnibus nostris burgis regalibus 
et burgis baronie per spatium duodecem miliarum ad minimum 
ex omni parte distant IGITUR proque meliore asiamento legiorum 
qui in ea parte dicti regni nostri habitant aliorumque com- 
meantium et frequentantium ibidem ac pro meliore accommoda- 
tione ipsorum tarn in suis itineribus quam aliis eorum legitimis 
negotiationibus proque meliore incremento politic ac pro multi- 
plicibus bonis servitiis nobis nostroque quondam charissimo 
patri dignissime memorie per prefatum predilectum nostrum 
consanguineum et consiliarium Willielmum Comitem de Drum- 
freis turn in privatis turn in publicis nostris negotiis dicti regni 
nostri sibi commissis prestitis et impensis Ac pro diversis aliis 
bonis causis et considerationibus nos moventibus cum avisamento 
et consensu predilecti nostri consanguinei et consiliarii Joannis 
Comitis de Traquair Domini Lintoun et Caberstoun supremi 
nostri Thesaurarii Computorum nostrorum rotulatoris collectoris 
novarumque nostrarum augmentationum Thesaurarii dicti regni 
nostri Scotie ac reliquorum Dominorum nostri Scaccarii 
dicti regni nostri Scotie nostrorum Commissionariorum, 
fecimus constituimus ereximus et creavimus tenoreque presentis 
carte nostre facimus constituimus creamus et erigimus 
dictas villam et terras de Monyeve cum integris domibus edificiis 


hortis pomariis lie outsettis partibus pendiculis et pertinentiis 
earundem. IN UNUM LIBERUM BURGUM baronie prefato predilecto 
nostro consanguineo et consiliario Willielmo Comiti de Drumfreis 
heredibus et successoribus suis in dicta baronia de Glencairnie 
nunc et omni tempore affuturo Burgum Baronie de MONYEVE 
nuncupandum cum plenaria potestate libertate et licentia prefato 
predilecto nostro consanguineo et consiliario Willielmo Comiti 
de Drumfreis heredibus et successoribus suis antedictis ballivos 
burgenses officiarios serjandos aliosque officiarios quoscunque 
requisites infra dictum burgum nostrum pro regimine et guber- 
natione ejusdem faciendi eligendi oonstituendi et creandi ac 
dictos ballivos aliosque officiarios prout ipsis videbitur expediens 
eligendi mutandi et retinendi Cum plenaria potestate dictis bur- 
gensibus dicti burgi nostri perpetuo omni tempore futuro faciendi 
utendi et exercendi integra privilegia libertates aliaque que 
aliquis alius liber burgus baronie infra dictum regnum nostrum 
ad libertatem alicujus liberi burgi baronie spectantia de jure 
fecerint seu facere poterint ac infra dictum burgum erigendi 
habendi et tenendi crucem foralem et pretorium et forum hep- 
domodarium die Martis et duas annuas liberas nundinas utranique 
earundem pro spatio trium dierum duraturam earundem unam 
decimo sexto die mensis Junii. incipientem et lie Midsumar fair 
nuncupandam ac alteram earundem ultimo die mensis Septembris 
incipiendam et lie Michaelmes fair nuncupandam Ac integras 
tollonias custumas et casualitates dicti burgi baronie fororum 
hepdomodariorum et liberarum nundinarum ejusdem petendi 
recipiendi intromittendi et percipiendi ac ad ipsorum usus 
applicandi cum speciali privilegio et libertate prefato predilecto 
nostro consanguineo et consiliario Willielmo Comiti de Drum- 
freis suisque antedictis resignationes omnium terrarum tenemen- 
torum annuorum reddituum aliorumque infra dictum burgum 
existentium recipiendi ac eadem quibuscunque persone vel per- 
sonis in quorum favores resignate fuerunt dandi et disponendi 


cum omnibus infeofamentis cartis sasinis aliisque evidentiis 
necessariis curias burgales infra dictum burgum et libertatem 
ejusdem inchoandi affigendi affirmandi tenendi et continuandi 
toties quoties opus fuerit clericos serjandos adjudicatores aliaque 
membra et officiarios dictarum curiarum necessarios creandi 
locandi imponendi et deponendi ad ipsorum libetum transgres- 
sores secundum leges dicti regni nostri puniendi escaetis lie 
unlavvis et amerciamenta dictarum curiarum percipiendi et 
recipiendi ac ad ipsorum usus applicandi ac si opus fuerit pro 
eisdem namandi et distringendi ac generaliter cum potestate 
prefato predilecto nostro consanguineo et consiliario Willielmo 
Comiti de Drumfreis suisque antedictis dictum burgum fora 
hepdomodaria et liberas nundinas ejusdem ac omnia privilegia 
et libertates ad burgum baronie spectantia et pertinentia simili- 
ter adeoque libere quam aliqui alii burgi baronie fecerunt aut 
facere legitime potuerunt sen poterint aliquo tempore affuturo 
gandendi fruendi et exercendi. IN cujus REI testimonium huic 
presenti carte nostre magnum sigillum nostrum apponi precepi- 
mus TESTIBUS ut in aliis cartis consimelis date precedentibus 
Apud Edinburgum quarto die mensis Julii anno Domini mil- 
lesimo sex centesimo trigesimo sexto Et anno regni nostri duo 


Charter of William Earl of Dumfries for the erection of 
the town and lands of Monyeyve into a free burgh of 

Charles by the grace of God King of Great Britain 
France and Ireland Defender .of the Faith, to all good men 
of his whole realm cleric and laic greeting. Know ye that 
whereas the town and lands of Monyeve with their pertinents 
and heritably belonging to our well-beloved cousin and coun- 
cillor William, Earl of Dumfries, Viscount of Ayr, Lord 


Crichton of Sanquhar as a proper part and pertinent of his 
barony of Glencairnie lying within our sheriffdom of Dumfries 
and held by him immediately of us are distant from all our 
royal burghs and burghs of barony round about for the space of 
at least twelve miles we therefore for the greater advantage 
of the lieges who dwell in that part of our kingdom and others 
having intercourse and frequenting there as also for the better 
accommodation of these persons both in their journeys and in 
their other lawful business and the increase of polity and for 
the manifold good services done, rendered and paid to us and 
our late dearest father of most worthy memory by our foresaid 
well-beloved cousin and councillor William Earl of Dumfries 
as well in our private affairs as in the public business of our 
said kingdom entrusted to him, and for divers other good causes 
and considerations moving us thereto have with advice and 
consent of our well-beloved cousin and councillor John, Earl 
of Traquair, Lord Lintoun and Caverstoun Lord High Trea- 
surer, Collector of our Accounts and Treasurer of our new 
augmentations of our said kingdom of Scotland, and the 
remanent Lords of our Exchequer of our said kingdom of Scot- 
land our Commissioners made constituted erected and 
created as by the tenor of this our present charter we do 
make constitute erect and create the said town and lands of 
Monyeve with the whole houses buildings gardens orchards 
outsets parts pendicles and pertinents thereof into one free 
burgh of barony in favour of our foresaid well-beloved cousin 
and councillor William, Earl of Dumfries, and his heirs and 
successors in the said barony of Glencairnie now and in all time 
to come to be called the Burgh Barony of Moneyeve, with full 
power liberty and license to our foresaid well-beloved cousin 
and councillor William Earl of Dumfries and his heirs and 
successors aforesaid to make elect appoint and create bailies 
burgesses officers sergeants and whatsoever other officers shall 


be required within our said burgh for the regulating and govern- 
ing thereof and as may seem expedient to them to choose 
change and continue the said bailies and other officers with 
full power to the said burgesses of our said burgh perpetually 
in all time coming to practise use and exercise the whole privi- 
leges liberties and others which any other free burgh of barony 
enjoys or can enjoy and of right belonging to the liberty of such 
free burgh of barony and to set up have and maintain in the 
said burgh a market cross and tolbooth with a weekly market 
on Tuesday and two annual free fairs each continuing for the 
space of three days the one beginning on the sixteenth day of 
June and to be called Midsummer Fair and the other beginning 
on the last day of September and to be called Michaelmas Fair 
and to ask receive intromit with and uplift the whole tolls 
customs and casualties of the said burgh of barony weekly 
markets and free fairs thereof and to apply the same to their 
own uses, with special privilege and liberty to our foresaid 
well-beloved cousin and councillor William Earl of Dumfries 
and his foresaids to receive resignations of all lands tenements 
annual rents and others being within the said burgh and to 
grant and dispone the same to such person or persons in whose 
favour they were resigned with all infeftments charters sasines 
and other evidents necessary and to inaugurate affix affirm 
hold and continue burgh courts within the said burgh and 
liberty thereof, as often as these shall be required, appointing 
setting placing and displacing the clerks Serjeants judges 
and other necessary officers and members of the said courts at 
their pleasure, punishing transgressors according to the laws of 
our said kingdom, uplifting and receiving the escheats fines 
and amerciaments of the said courts and applying the same to 
their own purposes and if need be poinding and distraining 
therefore, and generally with power to our foresaid well-beloved 
cousin and councillor William, Earl of Dumfries and his fore- 


saids to use and enjoy the said burgh, weekly markets and free 
fairs thereof and to exercise all the privileges and freedoms 
belonging and proper to a burgh of barony in the same way and 
as freely as any other burghs of barony have done do or law- 
fully can or shall do at any time hereafter IN WITNESS WHEREOF 
to this our present charter we have commanded our great 
seal to be appended (Witnesses as in other preceding Charters 
of the like date) At Edinburgh the fourth day of July in 
the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred and thirty-six 
and of our reign the twelfth year. 

The erection of Moniaive into a burgh does not seem to 
have had any material effect upon the fortunes of the village. 
Certain it is that the "privileges " and " liberties " conferred by 
the charter were soon allowed to fall into disuse. A reverse in 
fortune which the Crichton family sustained about this time may 
have had something to do with this untoward result, but as no 
local records dealing with civil affairs are available, it is difficult 
to obtain reliable information. Happily, the Public Records 
are not wholly silent concerning the affairs of the little burgh, 
and the following reference, gleaned from the Register of the 
Privy Council of Scotland, will no doubt be read with interest : 

" At a court held in Edinr. there was produced a presenta- 
tion under quarter seal dated Edinburgh, 25th July, 1636, 
directed to Wm. Fergusone of Craigdarroch, Superior of Cald- 
side and Craignee, for infefting Jas. Crichtoun in said lands 
(C and C) as falling in his Majesty's hands by the forfeiture of 
said deceased Andrew Roresone for the theft foresaid with 
Charter of infeftment granted at Monyeive, 20th Jany., 1637, by 
said Wm. Fergusone to said Jas. Crichtoun, who was the son of 
the Earl of Dumfries and bailie of the Barony of Glencarne. 
He had entered Caldside and spoiled or took away her (Mrs 
Roresone's) whole goods and the writs and evidents of the said 


lands and placed himself in possession, compelling the tenants 
to pay the duties thereof to him and caused Mrs Roresone's son 
to be apprehended at a court of which he was bailie and con- 
demned him to be hanged as a sheep -stealer, but his sentence 
was altered to banishment to the wars. The case was tried on 
3 Mch., 1642, against Jas. Crichtoun, who was ordered to 
remove from Caldside and Craignee before 29 May, 1642." In 
those days no nice scruples were shown by the rich and power- 
ful, especially in their dealings with inferiors, and it is gratifying 
to find that on this occasion the arm of the law was long enough 
to reach the spoiler and oppressor of the widow, even although 
he belonged to the masterful race of the Crichtons. 


It is from a water-colour sketch of "Moneyeve," dated 
1790, now in the possession of Mr William Macmath, Edin- 
burgh, and here reproduced by the kind permission of the owner, 
that we obtain our next glimpse of Moniaive. In this picture 
the village wears an extremely homely aspect. The houses 
are low, thatch-roofed structures, and there is little in the 
appearance of the principal street that is suggestive of growth 
or even of vitality. Mr Macmath, founding on the date and on 
the handwriting, is disposed to believe that the picture is the 
work of Grose, the antiquary. There are other circumstances 
that go to establish the truth of this conjecture, and its value 
as a faithful representation of the village towards the close of 
the eighteenth century is therefore considerable. The Cross, it 
will be observed, rests on a square base. Although no record 
of a change from a square to a circular base has come down to 
us, it seems probable that the Cross has undergone several 
structural changes. In the artless narrative given by the young 
son of the Rev. John Blackader when describing his own and 
his father's escape from Turner's dragoons, he tells how " a 
party of sodjers came from Galloway to Bardennoch about two 



o'clock in the morning," and how he fled with all the little 
speed he had to the Brigend of Minnihyvie, where, finding all 
the people asleep, he "mounted to the uppermost step of the 
cross of the toune, and, half-naked as he was, slept there till 
morning." The mention of " the uppermost step of the cross " 
implies the existence of a flight of steps, and as steps are usual 
in such structures, we think there are strong presumptive grounds 
for believing that they originally formed a part of the Cross of 
Moniaive. The village " Jougs," (from jugum, a yoke), which 
were long attached to the base of the Cross, were removed 
during structural alterations in 1812. A stone dial, which 
originally surmounted the hexagonal shaft, has unfortunately 
disappeared. The stone ball now in that position is an 
addition of recent date, which might with advantage be 
removed. The last thatched roof in the village disappeared in 
1899. A house typical of the period of the Macmath picture 
lingered in North Street until about the same date. The roof 
was thatched with straw, and the couples and rafters were made 
of oak branches trimmed with the axe. The walls were low and 
the windows small, while the floors were paved with cobble- 
stones. The house was inspected with interest by members of 
the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society in 1890. 

The changes that have taken place in the spelling of the 
name Moniaive present a curious study. Two forms, as we have 
seen, are used in the Charter " Monyeyve " in the title and 
" Monyeve ' ' in the text but this is trifling compared with 
the liberties that have been taken with the name elsewhere: 
Mony yfe (Burrow Cort Buik of Drumfress, 1560) ; Moniaive 
(Black MS., 1647-84, Sibbald Collection; Town and County 
Almanack, 1799; Minutes Glencairn Library, 1823); Minijve 
(Rae MS., circa 1710); Miniaive (Kirk-Session Records, 1711); 
Moneaive (Edinburgh Almanack, 1763); Minnihive (Associate 
Congregation Church Token, 1779; Pictures of Scottish Scenes 


and Character, 1830); Minihive (Church Treasurer's Book, 
1789); Monihive (Church Treasurer's Book, 1789); Moneyeve 
(Water -Colour Drawing, 1790) ; Minniehive (Kirk-Session 
Records, 1791); Minyhive (Kirk-Session Records, 1792); 
Monniehive (Singer's Agricultural Survey of Dumfriesshire, 
1812); Moneyheive (Legal Document, 1823); Minnyhyvie (Life 
of Blackader} ; Monyaive (Sketches of the Covenanters} ; Minni- 
aive (M'Ker lie's Lands and their Owners} ; Mininaive, Money- 
hive, Minnyive, Minnieaive, Minnyhive (Kirk-Session Records, 
various dates). An impression seems to prevail that the 
" Moniaive " form of the name is a recent coinage, but this 
is not the case. It was in use, as we have seen, between 1647 
and 1684, and it continued to contend for supremacy, especially 
with the forms " Monyhive " and "Minnyhive," down to 1856, 
when it was adopted by the Ordnance Survey on the authority 
of his Grace the Duke of Buccleuch and others. 1 The spelling 
" Moniaive ' ' has likewise been adopted by the Post Office and 
the Railways, and it may therefore be regarded as firmly 

It is curious that none of the early street names have 
survived. The "Causey," the "Throughgate," the "Mill 
Raw," the "Beggar Raw," the "Cow Raw," have all dis- 
appeared, and in their stead we have such commonplace 
designations as High Street, Chapel Street, Ayr Street, and 
North Street. Of Dunreggan, the new name for the Cow Raw, 
we say nothing, for it is an old village name and deserves to 
live. In addition to these names of what may be called prin- 
cipal thoroughfares, there were distinctive names for a few side 
streets, namely, the "Kettle Entry," the "Stenters," and the 
" Scleners." Let us glance a little more particularly at each of 
these streets. 

1. THE CAUSEY or CAUSEWAY (now High Street). The 

1. Letter from the Director- General of the Ordnance Survey. 


name takes us back to a time when the street was paved with 
cobble-stones throughout its entire length. A small portion of 
the original pavement remained in the neighbourhood of the 
Cross down to 1896, when the stones were removed to help in 
relaying the water-channels of the village. It was in this street 
that the village fairs in the months of June and Septem- 
ber were held. From the bridge across the Dalwhat stream 
westward booths and stalls were erected, and in these a miscel- 
laneous collection of wares was displayed to tempt the lieges. 
Latterly the fairs were held in a field to the east of the Free 
Church commonly known as the " Lamb Fair Park ' ' and we 
can recall the keen interest with which old as well as young 
looked forward to those recurring village festivals. Owing 
largely to the auction marts of modern days they gradually 
dwindled, and finally disappeared about thirty years ago. 

2. THE THROUGHGATE (now Chapel Street). At one time 
the incline near the northern end of Chapel Street was much 
greater than it is now, and as vehicular traffic became more 
common, steps were taken to level the street. In carrying out 
the improvement certain of the houses had to be " underfitted." 
Steps had likewise to be put down opposite the doorways. 
These changes may still be seen in the Bakery opposite the 
Union Bank and in one or two more of the houses in the same 

3. MILL RAW (now Ayr Street). The name "Mill Raw " 
was no doubt derived from Craigdarroch Mill, which is situated 
in this street. " Ratton Raw " a name of more restricted use 
may have been derived from the same source. The street 
seems to have been renamed Ayr Street about the time the 
new line of turnpike to Ayr was opened. 

4. BEGGAR RAW (now North Street). The new name ex- 
plains itself. If the same is to be said of the old one, the street 
must have changed greatly for the better, for it is now one of 


the cleanest and tidiest in the village. In the Ordnance Survey 
Map of 1856 the street appears as " Cairnside Row," but if this 
name was ever formally adopted it cannot have been received 
with approval, for it is now unknown. 

5. Cow RAW OR COWGATE (now Dunreggan). The cows 
owned by the villagers were no doubt pastured on the common 
lands belonging to the village, hence the name "Cow Raw." 
Although Dunreggan is now incorporated with Moniaive, it long 
ranked as a separate village, and it is described as such in all 
the older Gazetteers. The two villages were not only distinct, 
they were even bitter rivals, and it was scarcely safe for a boy 
on either side to cross the bridge. In Moniaive, contempt of 
the " Dunregganites " found expression in a distich that was 
long familiar in the village : 

" Dunreggan baggage, they're no' worth a cabbage, 

They're no' worth a pint o' powder." 

That the contempt was reciprocated goes without saying, but in 
what terms members of the Dunreggan clan expressed their 
feelings tradition fails to say. 

6. THE SCLENERS OR SCHLENDERS. A name applied to the 
roadway running past Broomfield in the direction of James 
Renwick's birthplace. It is said that a line of houses once stood 
here. The name " Scleners " means " shingle on the face of a 
cliff," and was no doubt descriptive of the place at the time it 
was bestowed. 

7. THE KETTLE ENTRY. Name given to a short row of 
houses with gables to the street, which stood near Hastings 
Hall. The origin and the meaning of the name are unknown. 

8. THE STENTERS. An old street name, which has now 
been supplanted by the name "Grains Road." The houses 
stood near the Waulk Mill, with its row of " stenters " for 
stretching the cloth, hence the name. 

At one time both a Race Course and a Common belonged 


to Moniaive. The former is preserved in the road name, " The 
Course," which, as we think, must have ended on the ground 
to the east of Dunreggan, described by Wodrow as " the Race- 
muir." 1 The Common, however, we grieve to say, is no more 
than a memory. When or how the inhabitants lost their 
Common we have been unable to discover, but we fear that 
appropriation by the superiors of the soil has been too long 
condoned for their rights to be called in question. 


To a village like Moniaive, situated as it is between two 
waters, bridges must always have been of supreme importance. 
We have seen that a bridge existed as early as 1560, and in the 
subsequent history of the village references to its bridges are of 
frequent occurrence. About the middle of the seventeenth 
century Mr Fergusson of Craigdarroch who owned the greater 
part of the lands in the neighbourhood built a bridge 
over the Dalwhat stream, and on 3rd August, 1661, he 
obtained an Act of Parliament empowering him to levy pontage 
dues. Fifty-five years later, as the historian Rae tells us, 
" Alexander Fergusson of Craigdarroch at his own charge caus'd 
put on a Stone Bridge of two Arches over Dalwhat Water, at 
his Burgh of Minijve ; And a bridge of one Arch was put on by 
the Shire, over Craigdarroch Water, on the other side of 
Minijve, both upon the post Road from Edinburgh, by New- 
Galloway to Wigton." 2 The bridge of two arches has long since 
disappeared, and in its place we have a plain but serviceable 
bridge of one arch. 

The changes in the roadways, like the changes in the 
bridges, present many features of interest. Down to near the 
close of the eighteenth century the present Ayr road did not 
extend much beyond the mansion-house of Craigdarroch, while 

1. Sufferings^ ol. IV. p. 242. 
2. Rae MS. 


the road up the Dalwhat glen, on the opposite side of the hill, 
ended at Caitloch. Again, the Craigdarroch road ran much 
higher up the hillside than it does now, while the Dalwhat or 
Caitloch road kept more to the south by Broomfield and the 
Scleners. The old Castlefairn road, after crossing the Craig- 
darroch stream near Nethertack, ran in the direction of Kirk- 
cudbright farmhouse, past the ash trees that mark the site 
of the first Secession Church. Keeping along the side of 
the hill for some distance, Glencrosh burn was crossed close 
to the point where it now joins Castlefairn stream. The road- 
way afterwards followed the higher ground to the right until the 
Scroggs hill was reached. One arm probably trended thence 
by way of Kilnhouse and Auchencheyne, while another ran past 
Lochrennie Mote in the direction of Lochrennie and Holmhead. 
Roads, or, strictly speaking, tracks communicating with Niths- 
dale were numerous. Northward there was the track by way of 
Bardennoch; more to the east there' was one in the direction 
of Tynron; a third traversed the Cloan pass; and a fourth 
crossed the ridge above Straith. By all these a considerable 
packhorse traffic was at one time maintained, but as the use of 
wheeled vehicles increased, good roads became a necessity, and 
the hill tracks were gradually abandoned. 

Communication with the outside world was greatly facili- 
tated when, in 1833, the " Craigengillan Coach " began to ply 
between Dumfries and Glasgow. Moniaive was one of the 
stages on the route, and the arrival and departure of the coach 
were events of no little interest and importance to the villagers. 
The places of call, according to Halliday's Dumfries and South 
of Scotland Almanac for 1835, were as follows: "Craigengillan 
Coach, for Glasgow, leaves here (Dumfries) every Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday morning, at before 6, by Minnyhive, 
Carsfearn, Dalmillington, Ayr, Kilmarnock. Arrives at the 
Tontine, Glasgow, at past 7. Returns, leaving Glasgow every 


Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday morning at 7 o'clock. 
Arrives in Dumfries at 8, night." 

The stage-coach proper did not long survive the coming 
of the railway ; and when the " Craigengillan ' ' ceased to run, 
Moniaive was in a worse position than ever. In 1865, however, 
a few gentlemen with commendable public spirit formed what 
was called the Moniaive Omnibus Company, and a 'bus began 
to ply twice daily between Moniaive and Thornhill station on 
the Glasgow and South-Western Railway system. Although 
several changes in ownership occurred, this convenient service 
was continued down to 1905, when it was abandoned soon after 
the opening of the Cairn Valley Railway. A bi-weekly service 
to Dumfries by way of Dunscore was discontinued about the 
same time. A motor-bus service to Thornhill was tried, but 
as it proved unprofitable it was soon given up. 


Notwithstanding the isolated position of Moniaive, visits 
from persons of note, even in pre-coaching days, were by no 
means infrequent. Lord Cockburn spent part of an autumn 
afternoon here in 1839, and his impressions, as recorded in his 
Diary under date 30th September, form interesting reading: 
" Next to Kenmure we were delighted with what a geologist 
would call the basin of Minnyhive. It is a wretched, half -dead 
village which should either be regenerated into a clean, nice, 
thriving country town, or be altogether superseded by a great 
mansion; because its position at the confluence of several pas- 
toral valleys is extremely beautiful, and the district is distin- 
guished by everything pleasing in the half -natural and half- culti- 
vated scenery of the Scottish straths. All the low grounds and 
much of the hills were gleaming with bright corn and grass; a 
great deal of wood is tossed richly everywhere, the surface is 
full of knolls, some of them very regular and plainly shaped by 
water ; comfortable embowered houses are perched on heights ; 


the river sweeps in a full flow of liquid crystal, and there is a 
prevailing air of industry. I walked, or rather lingered, here 
for about an hour, and never was more charmed. To be sure, 
I saw it all under the magic of the sweetest sunshine that ever 
blessed the close of a calm autumnal day. But, with its 
elements, that scene can never be but beautiful. We lost the 
glow of the happy valley as we got into the narrow defile, but 
the wood and the stream joined us again about two miles from 
Penpont, and as I looked back from the bridge over the Nith, 
close by Thornhill, I saw a day incapable of being made better 
ended by a magnificent, gorgeous sunset, and did not bid the last 
day of September adieu till ' the gradual dusky veil ' had fallen 
over all nature." 

Another legal luminary, namely, Lord Brougham, once 
attended a public dinner at Moniaive in the company of his 
friend, Mr Fergusson of Craigdarroch. A story connected with 
the function is related by the late Rev. Mr Monteith. " After 
dinner Brougham took out a cigar, which he was about to light 
when one of the company objected to his smoking at the table. 
Brougham persisted. Thereupon the objector seized a wine- 
glass and shied it at Brougham's head. Brougham sent a 

tumbler back at Dr . Then followed a decanter from each 

combatant, and in a short time the table might have been cleared 
of every available missile had not one of the company, a tall 
and powerful man, at this stage of the conflict risen from his 
seat, went up to Brougham, lifted him as if he had been a child, 
carried him downstairs out of the house, and deposited him 
safely in the courtyard." The scene of the story was no doubt 
the old Craigdarroch Inn, a place round which many memories 
of bygone village life still linger. Here, for instance, in 1826, 
lodged Mrs Charlotte Deans in the course of her wanderings as 
a strolling player, and the curious may still read her impressions 
of the place and of the people not very favourable, it must be 


confessed as contained in a volume of " Memoirs ' ' published 
at Wigton in 1837. One short extract must suffice : " We next 
rested at Minnyhive . . . abounding in fierce Cameronians 
with little money and plenty of pride." 

Among local celebrities who are known to have visited 
Moniaive, " Watty " Dunlop, the famous wit and divine, may be 
mentioned. On one occasion, when spending a few days in the 

village, he required a shave, and being told that Robbie M , 

a village weaver, could accommodate him, he applied to that 
worthy. Robbie at once undertook the job, but he had 
not proceeded far when he noticed that his customer winced 
rather frequently. "Is it sair, Maister Dunlop?" inquired 
Robbie solicitously. "Sair!" exclaimed the witty sufferer, "it 
depends upon what ye ca't; if it's flayin' it's no' sair, but if it's 
shavin' it's desprit sair." Mr Dunlop, we need scarcely say, 
journeyed to Dumfries on the next occasion when he required 
similar attentions. 

Other and still more notable names are linked with Moniaive 
and its neighbourhood. Here, in the stirring days of persecu- 
tion, the Rev. John Blackader, "outed " minister of Troqueer, 
found sanctuary, first at Caitloch and afterwards at Ingleston 
and Bardennoch. At Kirkland, about two miles away, Thomas' 
Boston, author of the Fourfold State, and one of the 
twelve "Marrow-men," taught school and formed a pro- 
fitable acquaintanceship with Janet Maclannie, " an old, exer- 
cised, godly woman." 1 It was here also that he first began to 
record passages of his life, using for the purpose, as he himself 
tells us, loose scraps of paper. 2 At Dungalston, Dhanjebhai 
Nauroji, a distinguished Parsee scholar and convert to 
Christianity, sojourned with the Rev. Patrick Borrowman. 
James Hogg, the Ettrick shepherd, and his friend Professor 
Wilson, were frequent visitors at Hastings Hall as the guests of 

1. Memoirs, pp. 19-20. 
2. Ibid. 


Mr and Mrs Robert MTurk; and we believe that Thomas 
Carlyle was entertained on more than one occasion at the same 
hospitable board. Coming down to a later period, it was at 
Hastings Hall that Dr Walter C. Smith wrote Borland Hall, a 
poem in which the hills and valleys of the parish are invested 
with the halo of romance, as when he says : 

" The bonnie green braes of Borland glen ; 
Cornland and woodland and lily-white lea, 
Up to the skyline, hill, and tree, 
All will be yours to the waterhead, 
Where it flows from the bosom of big Knockben, 
And the Kelpie's pool lies dark and dead 
Under the great rocks, towering red, 
And only the ripple of water-hen 
Stirs its surface, now and then, 
As she oars her way from the outer edge 
Through the bending ring of spotted sedge, 
And the ring of water-lilies, within, 
That fringes with beauty the dark pool of sin." 

Within still more recent years James Paterson, R.S.A., 
a Scottish painter of high and increasing reputation, has 
formed associations with Moniaive of a peculiarly intimate 
character. Coming to Moniaive in 1879, he was so much 
attracted by the beauty of the district that he returned for 
several years in succession, and afterwards purchased a small 
property on the outskirts of the village, where he resided more 
or less constantly until 1897, when he removed to Edinburgh. 
Mr Paterson was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1897, and a member in 1910. He is a member of 
the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colour, London, of the 
Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Water Colour, of the 
Royal British Colonial Society of Painters, and of the Pencil 


Society. He is likewise a member of the Royal Academy, 
Brussels, and a corresponding member of the Munich Secession. 
Mr Paterson's gifts are of a versatile order, but it is as a painter 
of landscapes that he is best known. Among pictures, the in- 
spiration for which was drawn from Glencairn, we may mention : 
Hawk Fell (Castlefairn), the property of the Prince Regent 
of Bavaria; Spring's Delay (Dalwhat Valley), Stuttgart Public 
Gallery; The Nymph (Dalwhat), Weimar Public Gallery; 
Borderland (Glencairn), Glasgow Municipal Collection. Mr 
Paterson is represented also in the Public Galleries of Munich, 
Leipsic, Buda Pesth, Venice, Brussels, Rome, Adelaide, 
Buffalo and St. Louis, U.S.A., and Oldham. 


Moniaive, like most small isolated communities, had its 
" worthies, ' ' whose sayings and doings must often have helped 
to relieve the former tedium of village life. Within the limited 
space at our disposal we can do little more than mention a few 
of the better known: " Princey Fergusson " (James Fergusson), 
wit and poetaster (see Bibliography), who, when taken to task 
by his voluble and loud-voiced, but often-ailing aunt, for not 
making more frequent inquiries as to the state of her health, 
replied, " Nae need to dae that, aunt, nae need to dae that, I 
can hear ye're weel lang afore I come roon Sandy Murray's 
corner." " To-hay " (James Reid), weaver, with his splay leg 
and strange oath, " It's my leg it is't, to hay wi' ye!" " Gibby 
Smith" (Gilbert Smith) and "Andra Coats" (Andrew Arm- 
strong), the heroes of many a village parade with fife and drum. 
Gibby Smith aforesaid was a tailor to trade, and supplied most 
of the villagers with the round flat-crowned bonnets that were 
then commonly worn by the men folk. Now all Gibby's bonnets 
were fashioned with the aid of a broth plate and stuffed with 
"fog," and whenever Gibby saw a villager carrying his head a 
trifle too high he was wont to observe, " Hee-hee-hee ! there he 


gangs vvi' his held stuffed wi* fog !" Certes, it cannot have been 
easy to act the hero in the eyes of one who furnished headpieces 
stuffed with fog ! We may also recall " Cumarat, ' ' the " pig- 
man " (crockery vendor), " Pistlefit " (James Cleland), "The 
Shirra" (Samuel Cleland), " Cornal Reid" (James Reid), 
"Ruglan" (John Chalmers), " Clocky " (John Millar, watch- 
maker), " Caddy " (William M'Adam), and the names of many 
others who are being rapidly forgotten as those who knew them 
in the flesh pass one by one across the silent bourne. 



The aspect of Glencairn to-day is very different from what 
it was one hundred, or even fifty, years ago. Cultivated lands 
have been improved, roads extended, and a better class of 
cottages provided. Many new and handsome mansions have also 
been erected, and there are few of the older dwellings, other 
than cottages, that have not been remodelled and generally 
brought abreast of present-day requirements. At no time has 
Glencairn been a laggard in the path of social progress. Gas 
was introduced into Moniaive in 1861, but a new era of lighting 
is upon us, and the parish is already in possession of two success- 
ful installations of electric lighting, one at Glenluiart, another at 
Tererran, while workmen are at present engaged upon a third at 
Auchencheyne. Draw-wells with their liability to pollution were 
supplanted by a gravitation water supply in 1879. New water 
channelling throughout the whole of the village was provided in 
1896. The last thatch roof, as has already been mentioned, 
disappeared in 1899. Coincident with these reforms the public 
health of the parish has shown a marked improvement. 

Notwithstanding the many changes for the better, the last 
sixty-nine years have witnessed a serious diminution in the popu- 
lation of the parish, as the following table will show : 

1755 - 1,794 

1794 - 1,600 

1801 - 1,403 

1811 - - 1,666 

1821 - - 1,881 

1831 - - 2,068 

1841 - - 2,094 

1851 - 1,980 

1861 . 1,867 

1871 1,749 

1881 - . 1,737 

1891 - . . 1,647 

1901 - , 1,490 


It will thus be seen that since 1841 there has been a steady 
decrease, and that only once before, namely, in 1801, has the 
population been as low as it is at the present time. No doubt 
the decrease has been partly due to causes that are operative in 
all rural communities, such as the increase of the acreage under 
pasture, and the substitution of machinery for hand labour in 
the operations of husbandry, but we believe it will be found that 
the principal cause is a baneful land system which works for the 
severance of the people from the soil. Under existing condi- 
tions very few of the working-class population of our country 
districts can ever hope to possess even a small farm; and it is 
only natural that the more enterprising, seeing no hope of 
bettering their position, should migrate to the towns, or perhaps 
leave the home land altogether. Such a state of matters calls 
loudly for reform. The poet Goldsmith's words are as true 
to-day as ever they were : 

" 111 fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, 

Where wealth accumulates, and men decay." 1 
Happily the subject is engaging the attention of our legislators 
of both parties, and signs are not wanting that remedial measures 
will soon be placed upon the Statute Book. 

The assessable rental of the parish for 1909-10 is as 
follows: Owners, 12,254 15s 7d; Occupiers, 6,655 11s 7d. 
Poor Rate Owners, 3d per 1 ; Occupiers, 2d. Education 
Rate Owners, 3fd; Occupiers, 3|d. Registration Rate 
Owners, |d; Occupiers, d. 

The number of poor on the roll is 17. This is in marked 
contrast to 1872, when no fewer than eighty-three persons were in 
regular receipt of parochial relief. 2 

The Parish Council, called into existence by the Local 
Government (Scotland) Act of 1894, consists of the following 
members : 

1. The Deserted Village. 

2. Monteith's The Parish of Olencairn, p. 58, 


William Barber of Tererran (Chairman). 

Captain George Laurie Walker of Crawfordton. 

Mrs Ellen M. Monteith of Glenluiart. 

Major M'Call of Bardennoch, (now of Caitloch). 

Robert Macmillan of Woodlea. 

Cecil E. Laurie, Jarbruck. 

William Hastings, Moniaive. 

William Fergusson, Moniaive. 

James Henderson, Slatehouse. 

The office of Clerk to the Council is filled by Mr David Corson, 
solicitor, Union Bank of Scotland, Limited, Moniaive. 


Among educative institutions the Library and Reading Room 
first claims our notice. It is the product of a union, effected in 
1894, between the Glencairn Subscription Library, founded in 
1812, and the Library of the Moniaive Mutual Improvement 
Society, instituted in 1858. In 1894 both of these once flourish- 
ing institutions had passed into a moribund condition, and amal- 
gamation was resolved upon as the most promising way of pro- 
longing their usefulness. The combined Libraries are now 
accommodated in the Glencairn Library and Reading Room, 
Chapel Street, Moniaive. The terms of subscription are: 
One year, 2s 6d; six months, 2s; three months, Is; one month, 
6d. The books number close upon two thousand, and additions 
are constantly being made both by donation and by purchase. 
During recent years courses of lectures have been arranged in 
connection with the Library, and these have been attended with 
a growing and very gratifying measure of success. 

A Glencairn Ploughing Society has existed since 1869. 
The Society was instituted, for the encouragement of ploughing, 
at a meeting held in Dumfries on the 27th day of January, when 
John M'Millan of Glencrosh was appointed President and Robert 
W. Sloane Secretary. To-day the same offices are filled by 


William Barber of Tererran and James F. Browne, Shancastle, 
respectively. The name of the Society was changed in 1890 to 
"The Glencairn and Tynron Ploughing Society." 

A Horticultural Society was established in 1879, and the 
exhibitions of the Society, which are held annually, have already 
done much to foster a love of flowers in the district. The Rev. 
T. Kidd, M.A., is Hon. President of the Society, while Mr D. 
Corson is President, and Mr T. Neilson Secretary. 

A Moniaive Lodge of the Nottingham Order of Oddfellows 
was instituted under the name "Thistle of Scotland" Lodge, 
No. 101, in November, 1842. The ordinary membership is 
85, and there is a flourishing Benefit Society connected with the 
Lodge. Mr John Wilson is Secretary. It is interesting to 
recall that a Freemason Lodge was erected in Moniaive 7th 
February, 1768. The full designation of the Lodge was 
"Nithsdale St. Paul, No. 139, Moniaive." Sir Robert Laurie 
of Maxwelton was the first Master, and he was succeeded by 
Alexander Fergusson of Craigdarroch ; Thomas Collow of 
Auchenchain; and other men of influence in the parish. Mr 
James Smith, the historian of Freemasonry in Dumfriesshire, 
says that the Lodge existed for " about a quarter of a century." 1 
It is on record, however, that Lodge " Nithsdale St. Paul " was 
represented at the ceremony of laying the foundation-stone of 
the Burns Mausoleum in Dumfries on 5th June, 1815, and the 
Lodge seems to have remained on the roll of the Order down to 
August, 1823. 2 What was the immediate cause of its decease 
is not stated. It is, however, gratifying to know that the 
"Thistle of Scotland " Lodge of Oddfellows was so soon able 
to occupy the field, and that its occupancy has been attended 
with such marked success. 

The inhabitants are well provided with the means of amuse- 
ment. Three Curling Clubs exist in the parish, namely, the 

1. History of Lodge St. MicJuiel's, Kilwinning. 

2. Ibid, 


" Glencairn Curling Club," the "Cairn Curling Club," and 
the "Glencairn XX. (Twenty) Curling Club." In addition to 
a number of lochs adapted to curling, there is an artificial pond 
in the parish capable of accommodating two rinks. A Bowling 
Green was opened in 1870, and the Club has already produced 
some excellent players. Carpet Bowling is now a popular 
pastime, and matches between the different clubs are frequent 
during the winter months. The games of Football and Quoits 
have each their devotees, and a Public Park, which was gene- 
rously gifted to the inhabitants of Moniaive by Sir George 
Gustavus Walker in 1894, is admirably adapted to both forms 
of sport. For indoor amusements there is a Recreation Hall in 
the village. The latest additions to the recreative institutions 
of the parish are a Golf Club and a Cricket Club. The Golf 
course is of nine holes, and has been skilfully laid out on 
lands adjacent to the village. Since the course was opened in 
1905 a pavilion has been added, and a number of improvements 
effected on the putting-greens. 

It should be mentioned that the parish possesses a Temper- 
ance Society, two Bands of Hope, a Parish Nursing Association, 
and a Choral Society. Apart from the Churches, the only public 
buildings that call for notice are an office of the Union Bank of 
Scotland, Ltd., a Public Hall, a Clock Tower, and the excellent 


No institution can show such a record of steady progress as 
the Post Office. The earliest postmaster of Moniaive of whom 
we have been able to find any notice is Robert Davidson, one of 
the founders of "Nithsdale St. Paul " Lodge of Freemasons, who 
held office in 1768. It appears, however, that there was a post 
to Moniaive in 1705, for in the Glencairn Kirk-Session Records 
of that year we find one Jane Hiddlestone, who had been charged 
with drinking to excess in George Ritchie's house, pleading in 


extenuation that her errand there was "to wait for the post." 
William Smith was postmaster in 1804. Mails were despatched 
on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays at eight o'clock in the 
morning, the postage to or from Edinburgh being eightpence. 1 
According to the Edinburgh Almanack, or Universal Scots and 
Imperial Register, the number of post towns in Dumfriesshire in 
1825 was nine, and Moniaive was one of the number. In 1836 
Moniaive was served by a foot post from Thornhitt. The letters 
for delivery arrived daily at 3 p.m., and a return despatch was 
made at 4 p.m. 2 Mrs Austin, nee Jean Kirkpatrick, is said to 
have been the first Moniaive letter-carrier. Her appointment 
was non-official, and can scarcely have been a lucrative one, for 
all the remuneration she received consisted of occasional small 
gratuities, chiefly in kind, from her scattered clientele. To-day 
four postmen, all holding full establishment appointments, are 
required for the landward deliveries, and the services of a fifth 
for the village alone. 

For a country office the number of missives dealt with is 
considerable. During an average week the letters, post-cards, 
newspapers, book packets, and parcels delivered from the 
Moniaive office reach a total of between three and four thousand. 
At Christmas and the New Year the number is, of course, much 
larger. The following tabular statement of other units, extracted 
from the returns for year ended 31st December, 1907, may not 
be devoid of interest : 

Number of parcels posted at Moniaive, 3,410. 
Number of Postal Order Transactions, 5,796. 
Number of Telegraph Messages, forwarded and received, 5,131. 
Value of Stamps sold, 614. 

The returns for 1910 are not yet available, but there is good 
reason to believe that they will show a distinct increase. A 
considerable amount of business is likewise done in the Money 

1. Universal Scots Almanack, 1804. 

2. Pigot dk Co.'s Directory, 1836. 


Order, Savings Bank, and Inland Revenue Licence branches. 
In January, 1909, the payment of Old Age Pensions was added 
to the official duties, and the transactions for the year show an 
average of thirty -four payments weekly. 


The first day of March, 1905, will long be famous in the 
annals of the parish, for it was on that day the inhabitants first 
enjoyed the privileges of railway connection. As far back as 
1865 a line of railway to Moniaive by way of Thornhill and 
Penpont was promoted, but in 1872 the proposal was abandoned 
in favour of a line by way of Auldgirth. Notwithstanding power- 
ful support this scheme was likewise abandoned, and the project 
of railway connection remained in abeyance until 1897, when 
an Act was passed empowering the Glasgow and South- 
western Railway Company to construct an ordinary line of 
railway to connect with their main system near Dumfries. Subse- 
quently it was decided to take advantage of the Light Railways 
Act, and powers for this purpose were granted in 1899. The 
contract for the making of the line was let in 1901, and the new 
line, under the name of the Cairn Valley Light Railway, was 
opened for traffic on 1st March, 1905, the day being observed as 

a holiday throughout the parish in honour of the occasion. The 
line traverses a district of great natural beauty. Near Stepford 
and Newtonairds, in Holywood parish, and Maxwelton, in Glen- 
cairn, the scenery is particularly fine. Maxwelton House itself 
is set in a picture of beauty. One delighted traveller has been 
heard to declare that it is well worth while travelling up the 
Cairn Valley Line were it only to see the home of " bonnie Annie 
Laurie," and the dew-clad "braes " which her poet-lover has 
immortalised in song. 

At the present time there is a regular service of passenger 
trains thrice daily each way, with additional trains on Wednes- 
days and Saturdays. The amount of patronage that the line 


has already received augurs well for its success. Between 
October, 1906, and September, 1907, the number of passengers 
booked from Moniaive was 11,502. The tonnage (goods and 
mineral) for the same period was 5,813, and the number of 
waggons (cattle, she?,p, etc.), 395. 


What effect the railway will have upon the fortunes of the 
village and the parish as a whole remains to be seen. Many, we 
know, anticipate the time when Moniaive will become a favourite 
health resort, and we see no reason why the anticipation should 
not be realised. During recent years dwellers in our towns and 
cities have been turning their thoughts more and more towards 
homes and holiday abodes in the country. To all such, Moniaive 
offers many attractions. It possesses pure air, beautiful scenery, 
and peaceful surroundings in abundance. As regards accom- 
modation, the cottages, although small, are scrupulously clean, 
and we can testify from intimate personal knowledge that they 
are often more comfortable in their interior arrangements than 
external appearances might lead one to suppose. Moreover, 
even the smallest cottage has its garden, and the taste and skill 
with which these garden plots are cultivated merits the highest 
praise. We believe, however, that an era of house-improvement 
is imminent, and that many of the old " but-and-ben ' ' dwellings 
will soon be replaced by neat and comfortable modern cottages. 
In Dunreggan a beginning has already been made in the direction 
indicated, and it is gratifying to know ihat all the new cottages 
have found tenants. Who knows but in the near future a new 
Dunreggan will be seen to arise, Phoenix-like, from the ashes of 
the old ? 

While, as we have seen, there is not a little progress to 
record, an enlightened policy seems to point much further in this 
direction. Perhaps the most clamant need of the village is an 
efficient drainage system. The expense would certainly be 


heavy, but there cannot be much room for doubt that the 
benefits would more than compensate for the outlay. If, indeed, 
Moniaive is ever to develop into a health resort, such an im- 
provement is a clear necessity. A proposal to erect a new 
Public Hall has been long under consideration, but the scheme 
is still in abeyance, although the need for a larger and more 
comfortable hall is admitted by every one. Among minor im- 
provements might be mentioned the provision of seats at suitable 
places, such as Renwick's Monument, Dunreggan Brae, Crichan 
Loaning, the public road between Lower Ingleston and Jar- 
bruck, and at various points in the glens. Again, the numbering 
of the houses is a simple and convenient device which has been 
too long delayed. A short time ago a letter arrived at the Post 
Office addressed to "The Lady of the House, Dunreggan," but 
it had to be returned bearing the endorsement " Insufficiently 
addressed." A very small outlay would obviate an inconveni- 
ence of this kind. 

These are useful lines of development, but we trust that the 
future holds in store advances of still greater moment. Having 
traced the history of the parish, we now ask, What will that future 
be? It is the people, not the soil, that must give the answer. 
Inspired by a noble tradition without proudly and complacently 
resting in it, Glencairn has many great possibilities in store. A 
parish fragrant with such names as James Renwick, John 
Blackader, and Robert Gordon cannot, surely, fail to awaken 
worthy ambitions in the breast of her modern sons and daughters. 
We must hope that none will ever despise honest manual toil, yet 
at the same time that more will find their way to the University 
with a view to entering the Christian ministry and other fields of 
promising service. 

In what other directions may we hope for progress ? It may 
well come in the development of public spirit, the larger awaken- 
ing of intellect, the widening of outlook, and the general eleva- 


tion of tone. Signs of such advances, as we believe, are not 
wanting, while we cannot but wish that they may grow beyond 
expectation. It is quite conceivable that Glencairn may in yet 
more enlightened ways pursue her own higher ends, and the ends 
that lie where far horizons beckon. A more lively appreciation 
of such ends, and a growing readiness to be touched to these 
higher issues, will surely speak of progress. May we not look 
for the richer fruits of reverent faith, and the true order of 
earnest, well-regulated lives ? Will not beauty of soul find here 
in this choice field of Nature a yet more congenial home ? For 
what Mazzini wrote of a Country we may with equal truth say of 
Glencairn : " The true Parish is the Idea to which it gives 




Long-eared Bat (Plecotus auritis). Common. 
Common Bat (Vesperugo pipistrellus). Common. 
Daubenton's Bat (Vespertilio daubentoni). Not common. 

Hedgehog (Erinaceus europoaus). Fairly common. 

Mole (Talpa europoea), Abundant. Light-coloured varieties 

not infrequent. 

Common Shrew (Sorex araneus). Common. 
Lesser Shrew (Sorex minutus). Rare, or seldom seen. 
Water Shrew (Crossopus fodiens). Rare, or seldom seen. 

Fox (Canis vulpes). Not numerous. 

Weasel (Mustela vulgaris). Fairly common. 

Stoat or Ermine (Mustela erminea). Fairly common. 

Pole-Cat or Foumart (Mustela putorius). Extinct in Glencairn 

since 1858. 
Otter (Lutra vulgaris). Not plentiful. 

Roe Deer (Capreolus caprea). Not common. 

Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). Not uncommon. 

Brown Rat (Mus decumanus). Very common. 

Common Mouse (Mus musculus). Common everywhere. 

Field Mouse or Wood Mouse (Mus sylvaticus). Fairly numerous. 

Harvest Mouse (Mus minutus). Rare. 

Common Field Vole or Short-tailed Vole (Arvicola agrestis). 

Red Field Vole or Bank Vole (Arvicola glariolus). Fairly 



Water Vole (Arvicola amphibius). Abundant. 

Common Hare (Lepus europoeus). Fairly common. De- 

Mountain Hare (Lepus variabilis). Seen occasionally on the 
higher hills. 

Rabbit (Lepus cuniculus). Very common. 


R= Resident. 

S = Summer visitor. 

W = Winter visitor 

M = Visitor on migration. 

C = Casual visitor. 

* Species marked thus breed in the parish or its immediate 

* Mistle Thrush (Turdus viscivorus). Common. R. 

* Song Thrush (Turdus musicus). Common. R. and W. 
Redwing (Turdus iliacus). Common visitor. W. 
Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris). Common visitor. W. 

* Blackbird (Turdus merula). Common. R. 

* Ring Ouzel (Turdus torquatus). Common on the hills. S. 

* Dipper (Cinclus aquaticus). Not uncommon. R. 

* Wheatear (Saxicola cenanthe). Common. S. 

* Whinchat (Pratincola rubetra). Common. S. 

* Stonechat (Pratincola rubicola). Rare. R. 

* Redstart (Ruticilla phoenicurus). Not infrequent. S. 

* Robin (Erithacus rubecula). Common. R. 

* Whitethroat (Sylvia cinerea). Common. S. 

* Lesser Whitethroat (Sylvia curruca). Summer visitor. 

Perhaps infrequent. S. 

* Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Very rare. S. 

* Garden Warbler (Sylvia hortensis). Not plentiful. S. 

* Golden-crested Wren (Regulus cristatus). Frequent. R. 


* Chiff chaff (Phylloscopus rufus). Rare. S. 

* Willow Wren (Phylloscopus trochilus). Not uncommon. S. 

* Wood Warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix). Fairly numerous. S. 

* Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus phragmitis). Plentiful. S. 

* Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella ncevia). Occurs sparingly. 


* Hedge-sparrow (Accentor modularis). Common. R. 

* Long-tailed Tit (Acredula rosea). Seen occasionally. R. 

* Great Tit (Parus major). Common. R. 

* Coal Tit (Parus britannicus). Not plentiful. R. 
[Marsh Tit (Parus palustris). Reported.] 

* Blue Tit (Parus coeruleus). Common. R. 

* Tree Creeper (Certhia familiaris). Not uncommon. R. 

* Wren (Troglodytes parvulus). Common. R. 

* Pied Wagtail (Motacilla lugubris). Common. R. 

* Grey Wagtail (Motacilla melanope). Not uncommon. R. 
White Wagtail (Motacilla alba). Identified, but not a plenti- 
ful species. M. 

* Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla raii). Not common. S. 

* Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensis). Abundant. R. 

* Tree Pipit (Anthus trivialis). Not uncommon. S. 
Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio). Recorded 1910. 

Rare. C. 
Waxwing (Ampelis garrulus). Casual visitor. Rare. C. 

* Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa grisola). Common. S. 

* Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa atricapilla). Infrequent. S. 

* Swallow (Hirundo rustica). Common. S. 

* House Martin (Chelidon urbica). Fairly numerous, but de- 

creasing. S. 

* Sand Martin (Cotile riparia). Common. S. 

* Goldfinch (Carduelis elegans). Not plentiful. R. 
Siskin (Chrysomitris spinus). Occurs sparingly. W. 

* Greenfinch (Ligurinus chloris). Common. R. 

* House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Abundant everywhere. 



* Chaffinch (Fringilla ccelebs). Very plentiful. R. 
Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla). Seen occasionally. W. 

* Brown Linnet or Common Linnet (Linota cannabina). Plenti- 

ful. R. 

* Lesser Redpole (Linote rufescens). Not infrequent. R. 

* Twite or Mountain Linnet (Linota flavirostris). Frequent. 

R. and W. 

* Bullfinch (Pyrrhula europcea). Not plentiful. R. 
Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra). Seen occasionally. W. 
Two-barred Crossbill (Loxia bifasciata). Recorded 1890. C. 

* Corn Bunting (Emberiza miliaria). Local. R. 

* Yellow-hammer (Emberiza citrinella). Common. R. 

* Reed Bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). Not uncommon. R. 
Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis). Not an infrequent 

visitor. W. 

* Skylark (Alauda arvensis). Common. R. 

* Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Very plentiful and increasing. R. 

* Magpie (Pica rustica). Scarce in Glencairn. R. 

* Jackdaw (Corvus monedula). Common. Nests in rabbit 

burrows. R. 

* Carrion Crow (Corvus corone). Common. R. 

* Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix). Occurs sparingly. R. and 


* Rook (Corvus frugilegus). Very plentiful. R. 

* Raven (Corvus corax). Now rare, but still a nesting species. 


* Swift (Cypselus apus). Formerly common, now infrequent. 


* Nightjar (Caprimulgus europoeus). Not common. S. 

* Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopus major). Recorded 

1908, 1909, and 1910. S. 

* Kingfisher (Alcedo ispida). Not common. R. 

* Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Fairly numerous. S. 

* Barn Owl (Strix flammea). Rare, if not extinct. R. 

* Long-eared Owl (Asio otus). Not uncommon. R. 


* Short-eared Owl (Asio accipitrinus). Plentiful, and resident 

during vole plague, 1892. W. 

* Tawny Owl (Syrnium aluco). Common. R. 

Common Buzzard (Buteo vulgaris). Seen occasionally. W. 
Rough -legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus). Four seen winter 
1903-4. C. 

* Sparrow Hawk (Accipiter nisus). Not uncommon. R. 
Kite (Milvus ictinus). Now extinct in Glencairn. 
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Rare. C. 

* Merlin (Falco cesalon). On most of the moors, but not 

plentiful. R. 

* Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Fairly common. R. 
Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Seen occasionally. W. 

* Heron (Ardea cinerea). Not uncommon. R. 

Grey-lag Goose (Anser cinereus). Seen occasionally. M. 
Whooper Swan (Cygnus musicus). Recorded December, 
1893. C. 

* Mallard or Wild Duck (Anas boscas). Common. R. 

* Teal (Nettion crecca). Not uncommon. R. 
Wigeon (Mareca penelope). Not plentiful. W. 

Tufted Duck (Fuligula crisata). Recorded, but not plenti- 
ful. W. and(R?). 

Golden-eye (Clangula glaucion). Not common. W. 

Goosander (Mergus merganser). Seen occasionally on the 
Cairn. W. 

* Wood Pigeon or Ring Dove (Columba palumbus). Very 

common. R. 

* Stock Dove (Columba oenas). Not plentiful, but increasing. 


* Partridge (Perdix cinerea). Still fairly common, but de- 

creasing. R. 

* Quail (Coturnix communis). Said to have been common 

about 1830, now an irregular visitor. C. 

* Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Common. R. 

* Grouse (Lagopus scoticus). Common. R. 


* Black-Grouse (Tetrao tetrix). Common. R. 

* Water-Rail (Rallus aquaticus). Not common, but increasing. 

W. and R. 

Spotted Crake (Porzana maruetta). Rare. Recorded Loch 
Urr, 14th September, 1889. W. and (R?) 

* Corn Crake or Land Rail (Crex pratensis). Common. S. 

* Moor-hen (Gallinula chloropus). Common. R. 

* Coot (Fulica atra). Occurs sparingly. R. 

* Golden Plover (Charadrius pluvialis). Common on the hills. 


* Lapwing or Pewit (Vanellus vulgaris). Common. R. 
Oyster-catcher (Hcematopus ostralegus). Has been seen on 

the Cairn. S. 

* Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola). Fairly numerous. Increas- 

ing. R. 

[Great Snipe (Gallinago major). Reported on southern 

* Common Snipe (Gallinago coelestis). Common. R. 

Jack Snipe (Gallinago gallinula). Not uncommon in winter. 

* Common Sandpiper (Totanus hypoleucus). Common. S. 

* Redshank (Totanus calidris). Rapidly becoming common. S. 

* Curlew (Numenius arquata). Common. S. 

Common Tern (Sterna fluviatilis). Wanderer recorded 1893. 

* Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). Common. Two 

nesting places. R. 

Common Gull (Larus canus). Frequent, autumn and winter 
months. W. 

Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus). Not uncommon 
during winter. W. 

Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus). Seen occasion- 
ally during winter. W. 

Great Northern Diver (Colymbus glacialis). Specimen shot 
on Cairn, 2nd February, 1877. Rare. C. 


Red-throated Diver (Colymbus septentrionalis). Recorded 
1862. C. 

Great Crested Grebe (Prodiceps cristatus). Recorded by 

Hugh S. Gladstone, Esq. of Capenoch, Summer, 1910. 
* Little Grebe or Dabchick (Prodiceps fluviatilis). First ob- 
served 1885. Now nests regularly. 


Common Lizard (Lacerta vivipara), Generally distributed. 
Slow Worm (Anguis fragilis). Local. Not plentiful anywhere. 

Adder (Pelias berus). Numerous along southern and eastern 

Ringed Snake (Coluber natrix). Probably introduced. Not 

a plentiful species. 


Frog (Rana temporaria). Common. 
Toad (Bufo vulgaris). Common. 
Warted Newt (Molge cristata). Local. 
Common Newt (Molge vulgaris). Not uncommon. 
Palmated Newt (Molge palmata). Moss hags on the hills. 

Perch (Perca fluviatilis). Said to occur in Loch Urr. 

Three-spined Stickleback (Gastrosteus aculeatus). Not 

Salmon (Salmo salar). Migrant. Not plentiful. 

Sea Trout (Salmo trutta). Migrant. Not plentiful. 

Common Trout (Salmo fario). Plentiful. 

Pike (Esox lucius). Plentiful in Loch Urr. Not numerous 

in the streams. 

Minnow (Leuciscus phoxinus). Generally distributed. 
Loach (Nemachilus barbatulus). Fairly numerous. 
Eel (Anguilla vulgaris). Common in all lochs and streams. 




All the species enumerated have been gathered by the 
writer. In a number of instances the places are also given. 


Aquilegia vulgaris (Linn.), Columbine Jarbruck Wood. 
Helleborus viridis (Linn.), Green Hellebore Wood near 


Nuphar intermedium (Ledeb.), Yellow Water Lily Stroan- 
shalloch Loch. 


Corydalis claviculata (DC.), White Climbing Fumitory 

Jarbruck and Craigdarroch woods. 

Cochlearia officinalis (Linn.), Scurvy Grass Martour, Dibbin, 

and Conrick hills. 
Hesperis matronalis (Linn.), Dame's Violet Stream near 

Moniaive and along Cairn. Recorded 1891. 
Brassica campestris (L.), Wild Navew Riverside near 


Helianthemum chamaecistus (Mill.), Rock Rose Craigneston, 

600 ft., Bardennoch, 700 ft. Not plentiful. 


Viola adorata (Linn.), Sweet Violet River bank near Moniaive. 
Viola palustris (Linn.), Marsh Violet Twomerkland Loch. 
White variety. 


Silene Cttcubalus (Wibel.), Bladder Campion Frequent. 
Grainnes, etc. 

FLORA. 187 

Lychnis Githago (Lam.), Corncockle Not frequent. Probably 

introduced with seed. 

Lychnis vespertina (Sip.), White Campion Rare in Glencairn. 
Sagina subulata (Wimm.), Awl -shaped Pearl -wort Recorded 

1891. Near Castlehill. 


Hypericum humifusum (Linn.), Trailing St. John's Wort Not 
common. Bardennoch, etc. 


Malva sylvestris (Linn.), Common Mallow Neighbourhood of 
Moniaive. Probably an outcast. 


Geranium phaum (Linn.), Dusky Crane's-bill Single station, 
apparently old-established, near Moniaive. 

Geranium sylvaticum (Linn.), Wood Crane's-bill Not un- 

Geranium pralense (Linn.), Blue Meadow Crane's-bill Less 
plentiful than G. sylvaticum in Glencairn. 


Trifolium arvense (Linn.), Hare's-foot Trefoil Dry pasture 
lands south-west of Moniaive; not common. 

Trifolium striatum (Linn.), Soft-knotted Trefoil Single 
station. Rare. 


Prunus insititia (Linn.), Bullace Jarbruck Woods. 

Spiraa salicifolia (Linn.), Willow-leaved Spiraea Near Jar- 

Rubus saxatilis (Linn.), Stone Blackberry Sub-Alpine glens, 
Minnygrile, Glencrosh, etc. 

Rubus Chamamorus (Linn.), Cloudberry Western border of 
parish, 1700 ft. 

Rosa spinosissima (Linn.), Burnet-leaved Rose Single station. 
Rare inland. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria (Linn.), Common Agrimony Not infre- 
quent. Woodlea, Glencrosh, etc. 


Saxifrdga stellar is (Linn.), Starry Saxifrage Rare. Dalwhat 

Glen, alt. 1650 ft. 
Saxifraga granulata (Linn.), Meadow saxifrage Bank of 

Castlefairn stream. Only station. 
Saxifraga hypoides (Linn.), Mossy Saxifrage, locally " Ladies' 

cushion " Benbrack, 1800 ft., and neighbouring hills. 


Sedum Rhodiola (DC.), Rose-root Stonecrop River bank below 

Sedum villosum (Linn.), Hairy Stonecrop Wet roadsides in the 

hillier districts. 
Sedum Telephium (Linn.), Orpine or Livelong Grainnes, near 



Drosera longifolia (Linn.), Long-leaved Sundew Western 
border of parish. Rare. 


Circaa lutetiana (Linn.), Enchanter's Nightshade Not 
common. Woods near Caitloch and Poundland. 


Lythrum salicaria (Linn.), Upright Purple Loosestrife Not 
common. River bank near Moniaive, Loch Urr, etc. 


Sanicula Europcea (Linn.), Wood Sanicle Wooded glens. Not 

Carum verticillatum (Koch), Whorled Caraway Abundant in 


Myrrhis adorata (Scop.), Sweet Cicely Not uncommon. 
(Enanthe crocata (Linn.), Hemlock Water-dropwort. Not 

common. Near Moniaive and Maxwelton. 
Meum Athamanticum (Jacq.), Bald-money Plentiful but local. 


Adoxa Moschatellina (Linn.), Moschatel Not infrequent. 
Woods and hedgerows. 

FLORA. 189 


Galium cruciata (Scop.), Cross-wort Bedstraw Roadside near 
Moniaive. Not common. 


Valeriana pyrenaica (Linn.), Heart-leaved Valerian Dalwhat 
stream, near Moniaive. 


Solidago Virgaurea (Linn.), Golden-rod Not uncommon. 

Tanacetum vulgare (Linn.), Tansy Garden escape. Grainnes, 
near Moniaive. 

Senecio sylvaticus (Linn.), Mountain Groundsel Near Cross- 
ford. Rare in Glencairn. 

Arctium lappa (Linn.), Common Burdock Not infrequent. 


Lobelia Dortmanna (Linn.), Water Lobelia Loch Urr. Rare. 
Campanula latifolia (Linn.), Giant Bell-flower Cairn and its 


Vaccinium Vitis-Idcea (Linn.), Cowberry Western border of 
parish. Not common. 


Anagallis arvensis (Linn.), Scarlet Pimpernel Not infrequent. 
Chiefly by waysides. 


Vinca minor (Linn.), Lesser Periwinkle Jarbruck woods. 


Gentiana campestris (Linn.), Field Gentian Old hill pastures. 

Kirkcudbright, etc. 
Menyanthes trifoliata (Linn.), Bog Bean Common in marshy 



Symphytum officinale (Linn.), Common Comfrey Not un- 
common. Abundant on the Cairn. 

Anchusa sempervirens (Linn.), Evergreen Alkanet Craig 
darroch woods. Rare. 



Convolvulus Sepium (Linn.), Great Bindweed Frequent along 


Solatium nigrum (Linn), Common Nightshade Near Moniaive. 

Probably casual. Rare. 
Solatium Dulcamara (Linn.), Woody Nightshade or Bittersweet. 

On Cairn near Maxwelton, etc. 


Verbascum Thapsus (Linn.), Great Mullein Roadside near 
Moniaive. Rare. 

Linaria vulgaris (Mill.), Yellow Toad-flax Fields and road- 
sides. Not common. 

Mitnulus luteus (Linn.), Yellow Mimulus Naturalised escape 
or outcast rapidly becoming common. 


Utricularia neglecta (Lehm), Bladder-wort New Scottish 

record, 1891. 

Utricularia intermedia (Hayne). Recorded 1887. 
Utricularia minor (Linn.), Lesser Bladder-wort Recorded 



Scutellaria galericulata (Linn.), Common Skull Cap Loch Urr 

and near Maxwelton. Not common. 
Galeopsis versicolor (Curt.), Large-flowered Hemp-nettle 

Frequent in Glencairn. 


Polygonum Bistorta (Linn.), Common Bistort or Snake-weed 
Near Caitloch, Blackstone, and Crossford. Not common. 

Polygonum amphibium (Linn.), Amphibious Bistort Loch Urr. 

Polygonum minus (Huds.), Creeping Persicaria Loch Urr. 


Euphorbia dulcis (Linn.), an alien Castlefairn stream. Rare. 

FLORA. 191 

Salix pentandra (Linn.), Bay-leaved Willow Loch Urr, Castle- 

fairn, and near Moniaive. Rare. 
Salix repens (Linn.), Dwarf Silky Willow Single station. 



Empetrum nigrum (Linn.), Black Crowberry Frequent Gir- 
harrow and other hills. Rare in fruit. 


Malaxis paludosa (Sw.), Bog Orchis Recorded 1887. Rare. 

Listera ovata (R. Br.), Twayblade Frequent in moist pastures. 

Habenaria albida (R. Br.), Small White Habenaria Mountain 
pastures. Not common. 

Habenaria viridis (R. Br.), Green Habenaria. Sparsely distri- 
buted on the hills. 


Fritillaria meleagris (Linn.), Common Fritillary or Snake 's- 
head River bank east of Moniaive. Recorded 1906. 


Sparganium ramosum (Curtis), Branched Bur-Reed Ditches 
adjoining Cairn. Not infrequent. 


Arum maculatum (Linn.), Cuckoo-pint Jarbruck Wood. 
Recorded 1887. Rare. 


Carex dioica (Linn.), Separate-headed Sedge Girharrow. Not 

Carex pauci flora (Lightf.), Few-flowered Sedge Girharrow and 
Loch Urr. Rare. 

Carex muricata (Linn.), Great Prickly Sedge Frequent by the 

Carex remota (Linn.), Distant-spiked Sedge Woodlea, Cait- 

loch. Not common. 
Carex curia (Good.), White Sedge Bogs. Not infrequent. 


Car ex irrigua (Hoppe). Recorded in Babington's Flora. Re- 
discovered, 1887. Rare. 

Carex limosa (Linn.), Mud Sedge Stroanshalloch Loch. Rare. 

Carex pallescens (Linn.), Pale Sedge. Frequent. 

Carex sylvatica (Huds.), Pendulous Wood Sedge Jarbruck and 
Caitloch. Not common. 

Carex ftava (Linn.), Yellow Sedge. Frequent. 

Carex fulva (Good.), Tawny Sedge. Frequent. 

Carex filiformis (Linn.), Slender-leaved Sedge Girharrow. 

Carex hirta (Linn.), Hairy Sedge. Rare in Glencairn. 

Carex paludosa (Good.), Lesser Common Sedge Ingleston and 

Carex vesicaria (Linn.), Short-beaked Bladder Sedge On 

Cairn. Not common. 

Carex ampullacea (Good.), Slender-beaked Bladder Sedge. 


Hymcnophyllum unilateral (Bory), Filmy Fern Upper reaches 

of Dalwhat Water, Glencrosh, and Minnygrile. Rare. 
Cryptogramme crispa (R. Br.), Parsley Fern Caitloch, Craig- 

darroch, Castlehill, etc. Not plentiful. 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum (Linn.), Black Spleenwort 

Minnygrile and near Kirkcudbright. Not common. 
Asplenium Ruta-muraria (Linn.), Wall-rue. Jarbruck and 

Craignee. Not common. 

Ceterach officinarum (Willd.), Scale Fern Near eastern boun- 
dary of parish. Rare. 

Scolopendrium vulgare (Symons), Hart's-tongue. Rare in 
Glencairn. Specimens gathered near Jarbruck and Glen- 

Cystopteris fragilis (Bernh.), Brittle Bladder-fern Glenjaan 
Hill. Rare. 

Polypodium Phegopteris (Linn.), Beech Fern Glencrosh, 
Minnygrile, and other sub-alpine glens. 

FLORA. 193 

Poly podium Dryopteris (Linn.) Oak Fern. Frequent. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum (Linn.), Adder's-tongue Fern Cait- 

loch, 600 ft., meadows near Twomerkland Mill, and 


Botrychium Lunaria (Sw.), Moon-wort Fern Frequent through- 
out Glencairn. 

(In all 20 species of Ferns have been recorded.) 


Lycopodium Selago (Linn.), Fir Club Moss Found sparingly 

on upland moors. 
Lycopodium davatum (Linn.), Common Club Moss Among the 

heather, Girharrow, etc. Not plentiful. 
Selaginella selaginoides (Gray) Frequent in boggy places on 

the hills. 





ASH. Glencairn Churchyard, N.E. corner adjoining roadway 
Circumference 12 ft., circa 1883. 

ASH. Glencairn Churchyard, east of old church, 11 ft. 8 in. 
at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

ASH. Avenue, north-east of Craigdarroch, 12 ft. 3 in. at 5 ft. 
above the ground, 1909. 

ASH. South-east of Kirkcudbright Farm, 12 ft. in circumfer- 
ence at 4 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

ASH. South-west of Kirkcudbright Farm, 11 ft. 4 in. at 5 ft. 
above the ground, 1909. 

BEECH. Craigdarroch. Cut down owing to injury sustained 
during storm, 1883. Girth at base 16 ft. 2 in.; at 6 ft. 
from base 14 ft. 2 in. 

BEECH. Back road Craigdarroch, 12 ft. 2 in. at 5 ft. above the 

BEECH. Near back gate Craigdarroch, 14 ft. in circumference 
between 4 and 5 ft. above the ground, 1908. 

BEECH. South-east of Lodge, Craigdarroch, 16 ft. in circum- 
ference at 5 ft. above the ground, 1908. 

BEECH.- On line of old roadway between Woodhouse and 
Craigdarroch, 12 ft. 6 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

BEECH. On line of old roadway between Woodhouse and 
Craigdarroch, 12 ft. 7 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

BEECH. Adjoining roadway north-east of Craigdarroch Gardens, 
13 ft. 10 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

BEECH.- Overlooking avenue north-east of Craigdarroch Man- 
sion house, 16 ft. 6 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

BEECH. In field north-east of Maxwelton Lodge (South 
entrance), 15 ft. 6 in. at 4 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

BEECH. Adjoining roadway Kirkcudbright Farm, 12 ft. 6 in. 
at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 


BEECH. Craigneston, near roadway, 15 ft. in circumference at 
5 ft. from the ground, 1908. 

CRAB. On line of old roadway north of Woodhouse, 7 ft. 3 in. 
in circumference at 3 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

ELM. Near public roadway a few yards north-west of Craig- 
darroch Lodge, 12 ft. 1 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

ELM. Adjoining roadway south-east of Craigdarroch Lodge, 
11 ft. 8 in. in circumference, at 5 ft. above the ground, 

ELM. On line of old roadway near Dungalston, 13 ft. in cir- 
cumference at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

HORSE CHESTNUT. Two, growing on lawn in front of Craig- 
darroch Mansion house, respectively 11 ft. and 11 ft. 10 in. 
at 5 ft. above ground, 1909. 

HORSE CHESTNUT. North-east of Old Crawfordton, 13 ft. 6 in. 
at 5 ft. above the ground, 1910. 

LARCH. Blown down at Craigdarroch, 1883. 8 ft. 8 in. in 
circumference. , 

LARCH. Cut at Craigdarroch, 1906. 13 ft. 6 in. in circum- 
ference at base, with 36 feet of clean stem. 

LARCH. North-west of Craigdarroch Lodge, 12 ft. 6 in. in 
circumference at 5 ft. above the ground, 1908. 

LARCH. North-west of Craigdarroch Lodge, 11 ft. 6 in. 
between 4 and 5 ft. from the ground, 1909. 

OAK. Glencairn Churchyard, 10 ft. in circumference at 5 ft. 
above the ground. 

OAK. Near entrance to Old Crawfordton, 12 ft. in circum- 
ference at 5 ft. above the ground. 

OAK. South-west of Hunter's Lodge, 10 ft. 6 in. in circum- 
ference at 4 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

SCOTCH FIR. Craigneston, 10 ft. in circumference at 5 ft. 
above the ground, 1908. 

SILVER FIR. Ladies' Brae Plantation, Craigdarroch, blown 
down 1902. 16 ft. 7 in. in circumference at base. 

SILVER FIR. Ladies' Brae Plantation, Craigdarroch, a com- 
panion tree to the above, 14 ft. 8 in. at base; 13 ft. at 
5 ft. above the ground, 1908. 



SILVER FIR. Ladies' Brae Plantation, Craigdarroch, 11 ft. 

11 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 1908. 
SYCAMORE. Woodlea, 10 ft. 9 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 


SYCAMORE. Back road, Craigdarroch, 14 ft. in circumference 

at 5 ft. above the ground, 1908. 
SYCAMORE. Near entrance to Gardens, Craigdarroch, 11 ft. 

9 in. at 5 ft. above the ground, 1909. 

SYCAMORE. Castlehill, 14 ft. 4 in. in circumference at 5 ft. 

above the ground, 1909. Perhaps the finest tree in the 

YEW. Nine fine trees at Snade. Two largest, respectively 

10 ft. 5 in. and 10 ft. 6 in. at 5 ft. above the ground. 



BARBER, WILLIAM, M.A., J.P., of Tererran. 

An Agricultural Tour in Canada, a Lecture delivered in Dum- 
fries, 16th December, 1908. Dumfries. [1908.] pp. 31. 
Blue-Grey Cattle ; Cheviot Sheep ; Farm Management ; Led 
Farms ; Moors, Agricultural Value ; Sheep Farming in the 
Highlands. In " The Standard Cyclopedia of Modern Agri- 
culture and Rural Economy." 12 vols. London. 
Joint-author, see Fyffe, Rev. David, M.A. 

The Sabbath and other Poems. By William Bennoch. Dum- 
fries. 1822. 12 mo., pp. 228. 

Includes " A Panegyric on Craigdarroch Water " and " To 
James Fergusson, Esq." In subsequent works the spelling 
" Bennet " was adopted. 

ed., The Dumfries Monthly Magazine and Literary Compen- 
dium, 3 vols., July, 1825, to December, 1826. Dumfries: 
J. M'Diarmid & Co. 

In it originally appeared his " The Tailor of Craigknee " 
and " Old Dibbin." 

ed., The Glasgow Free Press (Newspaper, Editor, 1827-35). 
Taste and Criticism, p. 226; Fragments of History. 
History [Anonymous], in " The Paisley Magazine " [edited by 

William Motherwell]. 1828. pp. 323. 
Sketches of the Isle of Man. London. 1829. 
Actual State of the Question between our Colonial Slave Pro- 
prietors and the Parliament and Abolitionists of this 
Country. Glasgow. 1830. pp. 112. 

Traits of Scottish Life and Pictures of Scenes and Character. 
3 vols. London. 1830. 

Second edition, 1832, with title slightly altered. 
Songs of Solitude. Glasgow. 1831. 12 mo., pp. 264. 
ed., Bennet's Glasgow Magazine, 1 vol., July, 1832, to June, 
1833. Glasgow : William Bennet & Co. 

Nation ; Edwards' Modern Scottish Poets, and similar works. 


BENNKT, WILLIAM (contd.). 

Excise Widows' Fund. Appeal to the Legislature and the 

Public on the Preservation of the Same. Glasgow. 1833. 

pp. 73. 

Critical Remarks on the Authorised Version of the Old Testa- 
ment. ? 1834. 
ed., The Glasgow Constitutional [Newspaper, established by 

W. B. in 1835]. 
History of the Lady's Album. In " The Glasgow University 

Album," 1836. pp. 80. 
The Chief of Glen-Orchay (a poem in six cantos), illustrative 

of Highland manners and mythology in the Middle Ages. 

[Anonymous.] Lond. 1840. 6 by 4. pp. 266. 
Truth Unlocked in Gleanings and Illustrations from the 

Scripture Originals. By a Pioneer Witness. Edinburgh 

1875. Sm. 8vo., pp. 454. 

BLACK, REV. WILLIAM, A.M., Closeburn. 

A Brief Description of the Presbytery of Penpont. Circa 

Printed in Symson's " Large Description of Galloway," 
1823; Mackenzie's "History of Galloway," 1841, Vol. 2, 
Appendix, pp. 180-198; and Macfarlane's "Geographical 
Collections," Vol. 2, pp. 51-132. Scot. Hist. Soc. 


Select Passages from the Diary and Letters of the late John 
Blackader, Esq. Preface by the Rev. John Newton. 1806. 
The Christian Soldier, a sketch of the life and character of. 
Lieut.-Col. Blackader. In "The Cottage Library," III. 

The Life and Diary of Lieut.-Col. J. Blackader, of the 
Cameronian Regiment, and Deputy-Governor of Stirling 
Castle. By Andrew Crichton. Edinburgh. 1824. 12 mo., 
pp., viii., 578. 

Includes : Letter to his brother giving an account of the 
affair at Dunkeld, 21st August, 1689. Printed in the 
papers of the time (pp., 102-105) ; A Vision of the Last 
Judgment, a poem. (Appendix.) 


The Proposed Basis of Union. ... A speech delivered in 
the Free Presbytery of Penpont, 14th March, 1871. pp. 36. 


Parish of Glencairn. In " The New Statistical Account." 
1836. IV., 330-336. 


BRYDON, REV. R., D.D., Dunscore. 

The Appaling Effects of Sin. The Monthly Discourse or 
Preachings from the Press. No. IX. Dumfries. 1857. 
pp. 4, 16. 


Verses intended to be written below a noble Earl's picture; 
Epitaph for William Nicol ; A Mother's Lament for the 
death of her Son ; Extempore to Captain Riddel ; Rhyming 
Reply to a Note from Captain Riddel; Willie Brew'd a Peck 
o' Maut; The Whistle; Elegy on Willie Nicol's Mare; 
Lament for James Earl of Glencairn ; On Glenriddell's Fox 
breaking his Chain ; On Robert Riddell ; Sonnet on the 
death of Robert Riddel. Also, Letters to the Earl of 
Glencairn, the Countess-Dowager of Glencairn, Lady 
Elizabeth Cunningham, William Nicol, Alexander Fergus- 
son, and Robert Riddel. 


A note on the Roman Camp at Springfield Hill, Dunscore. 
In " Trans. D. and G. N. H. and A. Soc.," 1887-88. 

CHAMBERS, WILLIAM, LL.D., of Glenormiston. 

Glencairn, a Dramatic Story in Three Acts, by W. C. 
Printed for private circulation, 1875. Sm. 4to., pp. 42. 
Account of an impostor calling himself Lord Glencairn 
or Lord Gordon. 

CLAPPERTON, ROBERT, M.D., of Lochmaben. 

See Riddel, Robert, MS. Collection of Scottish Antiquities. 
CLERK, ALEXANDER, in Caulside, Parish of Glencairn. 

Poems on various subjects. Dumfries. 1801. pp. 79. 

Contains the poem " On Potatoes " often attributed to 


Transactions Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History 
and Antiquarian Society. A Bronze Ewer found near 
Moniaive, 1887-8. An Ornithological List for the Parish of 
Glencairn, 1888-9. Notes on Birds, 1889-90. Folk-lore of 
Glencairn (2 parts), 1890-91. Leach's Petrel (Procellaria 
Leachii), 1891-92. Glencairn Folk Riddles, 1891-2 and 
1896-7. A Note on Birds, 1893-4. Annotated List of Rarer 
Plants met with in N.W. Dumfriesshire, 1895-6. Nesting 
of the Nightjar in Glencairn, 1899-1900. Phenological 
Observations taken at Moniaive during 1901, 1901-2. The 
Loch Urr Crannog, 1902-3. 

The Gallovidian, Vol. V. The Deil's Stane (verse). At the 
Grave of Joseph Thomson (verse). 



The Cup Markings at Stone Circle on Hills Farm, Lochrutton. 
In " Trans. D. and G. N. H. and A. Soc.," 1908-09. 

Andrew Wardrop, Chartist, Politician, and Postman. In 
" The Gallovidian," Vol. XII. 

The Dumfries Post Office, 1642-1910. (In preparation.) 

The Golden Age of Toryism : Its Lesson and its Legacy. 

Dumfries and Bound About. Dumfries: V.D. 4th ed., 1910. 

Transactions of Dumfries and Galloway Natural History and 
Antiquarian Society. 1896-7: The Riding of the Marches 
of Dumfries, 1827. 1900-1: Scottish Burghal Life in the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, chiefly illustrated 
from Kirkcudbright Burgh Records. 1902-3: Scottish Life 
in the Seventeenth Century ; illustrated specially from 
Dumfriesshire and Galloway. 1904-5: The Weavers' Incor- 
poration of Dumfries. 1906-7 : Old Records of Kirkcud- 
> bright Burgh. 1905-6: The Birthplace of Anna Laurie. 


From London to Nice. Edinburgh, 1861. Sin. 8vo., pp. 

viii., 155. 
DUNCAN, ARTHUR, Teacher of Dancing, Dumfries. 

A Collection of Reels, Strathspeys, Quadrilles, Waltzes, etc., 
etc. No. 1. Price one shilling. Glasgow. 1852. 

The collection contains among other compositions: ' J. 
Walker, Esq. of Crawfordton's Strathspey,' ' The Lasses 
of Glencairn Reel,' ' Craigdarroch Strathspey,' ' Fergus- 
son's Whistle Reel.' 

FALLOW, T. M., M.A., F.S.A. , 

Some Notes on the Family of Gibson of Glencrosh. Dumfries. 
1905. pp. 24. 


The Proposed Reform of the Counties of Scotland Impartially 
Examined, with Observations on the Conduct of the Dele- 
gates. Edinburgh. 1792. 

The Whole Proceedings against Sackville, Earl of Thanet, 
Robert Fergusson, and others, for a riot. To which are 
added some observations by R. F. on his own case. 1799. 

Sprawa Polski ujarzmionej na parlament. W. Brytanji, 9 
Lipca, 1833. Paryz, 1834. 

Speech in House of Commons against permitting British Sub- 
jects to engage in the Service of the Queen of Spain. 
London. 1838. 



Mitford Church : Its History, Restoration, and Associations. 
Morpeth from the Accession to the Jubilee of Queen Victoria, 


A Geography of Northumberland. 
Guide to Morpeth. 1906. 


Records of the Clan Fergusson or Ferguson. Edinburgh. 

Contains an account of the Craigdarroch Fergussons from 
family papers. 

FERGUSSON, JAMES, Stonedyker, Minyhive. 

The Church in Turmoil, a poem. pp. 4. 9 by 5J. 

Derwentwater. A Drama. 

Vaticanism. [Circa 1876.] 

ed., Newcastle Magazine. 

Full Report of the Celebration of Burns' 108th Anniversary 
in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, January 25th, 1867. Reported and 
Edited by W. S. Cameron and W. Fergusson. pp. 48. 


Poems on various subjects. Dumfries. 1790. pp. 160. 
Poems on various subjects. Improved and enlarged. Dum- 
fries. 1792. 

A Spring-Day. Edinburgh. 1803. 5th Edition, Liverpool. 
1819. pp. 360. 

Portrait and four wood cuts by Thomas Bewick. 
Elegy on the Death of David's Psalms. Carlisle. 1805. 

pp. 15. 

A Winter Season. Edinburgh. 1810. pp. 203. 
Portrait and four wood cuts. 


D.D. Sermons preached in Oakshaw Street United Presby- 
terian Church, Paisley, on Sabbath, May 1, 1881, on 
occasion of the death of the Rev. William France, Senior 
Pastor of Oakshaw Street Congregation. Published by 
request of the Session. Paisley. 1881. 

Flower of Glencairn, The. [Anonymous.] Dumfries : " Standard " 
Office. N.D. pp. 28. 


FYFFE, REV. DAVID, M.A., Glencairn, and BARBER, WILLIAM, of 


1843-1893. 1. The History of Glencairn Free Church. By 
D. F. 2. The Sustentation Fund. By W. B. Dumfries, 
pp. 26. 


MS. Volume of the Notes of Communion Sermons. Beginning 
in the year 1724. 

Notes of six sermons preached at Glencairn in 1724, also 
notes of sermons preached at ' Keer ' in 1727, and at 
1 Mortoun ' in 1729. 


An Epistle directed fro the holy Heremit of Allareit to his 
Brethren the graye frears. [No place or date, but printed 
at London by Thomas Vautrollier, 1586. Sm. 8vo.] 

See also "The Historie of the Church of Scotland" by 
John Knox. 

MS. Ane Godlie Band for Maintenance of the Evangell. 

[Covenant subscribed at Edinburgh, 3rd December, 1557, 

by A. Erie of Ergyl, Glencarne, Mortoun, Ar. Lord of 

Lome, and Jhone Erskine.] 

MS. [Covenant subscribed at Perth, May 31st, 1559, by 

' Glencarne ' and five others.] 

ROGERS, REV. CHARLES, LL.D. Alexander Cunningham, fifth 
Earl of Glencairn. In "Three Scottish Reformers," 1874. 
p. 1. With Portrait. 


A Proclamation. William Earle of Glencairn. . . Com- 

mander-in-Chief . . . within Scotland. Given at 

Weems, this 22d of December, 1653. In " Mercurius 

Politicus," No. 190. 

Glencairn's Proclamation. Given under our hand the 1st 

of February, 1654. In " Mercurius Politicus," No. 193. 
A Letter from the Earl of Glencairne to the Governour of 
Badgenoth [Badenoch] Castle, and his Answer thereunto. 
Together with a Letter from the Governour to the gentle- 
men of Badgenoth. No place. 1654. 4to. 

Letters and other documents by him are in Firth's " Scot- 
land and the Commonwealth," 1895, and " Scotland and 
the Protectorate," 1899. Scot. Hist. Soc. 


The Redeemer's Tears wept over Lost Souls. By John Howe. 
Introductory Essay by R. G. Glasgow. 1822. 12mo. 


GORDON, ROBERT, D.D. (contd.). 

The Duty of Searching the Scriptures. A Sermon. Edin- 
burgh. 1823. 8vo. 

The Mourner's Companion. Introductory Essay by R. G. 
Glasgow. 1824. 12mo. pp. xxix., 378. 

Sermons. Edinburgh. 1825. 8vo. pp. 477. 

Emmanuel: Or a Discovery of True Religion. . . By Samuel 
Shaw. Introductory Essay by R. G. Glasgow. 1829. 
8vo. pp. xxxix., 304. 

Two Sermons. [The first by Rev. A. Brunton, D.D. ; the 
second by R. G.] Preached in the Old Greyfriars' Church 
on 12th January, 1834. . . Edinburgh. 8vo. pp. 47. 

Report of the Speeches of . . Dr Gordon [and others] in 
the Commission of the General Assembly, August 14, 1839, 
on the Auchterarder case. Edinburgh, 1839. 8vo. 

Speech at the Meeting in the West Church, 25th August, 1841. 
Edinburgh, 1841. 4to. 

Report of Speeches [on Church Question] delivered by Dr 
Gordon [and others] at Meetings held in Edinburgh, August 
25, 1841. Edinburgh. 1841. 8vo. 

Memorial Addressed to the Members of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment, by R. G., Moderator of the G. A. of the C. of S. and 
others, Commissioners appointed by the Church, September, 
1841. [Prepared by John Hamilton.] Edinburgh. 1841. 

The Church of Scotland's Claim of Right, to which are pre- 
fixed the Speeches of . . . Dr Gordon ... in sup- 
port of the same, May 24, 1842. 1842. 8vo. 

The Means of Regeneration: Sermon. . . . Edinburgh. 
1871. 8vo. [Attributed in Bell Catalogue to Dr Gordon.] 

Euclid; Geography; Meteorology. In "The Edinburgh 


D.D. Two Sermons preached . . . Nov. 6, 1853, after 
the funeral of Rev. Robert Gordon, D.D. Edinburgh. 1853. 


Charges against the Right Honourable Lord John Russell for 
illegal oppression by himself and subordinates, when Home 
Secretary. With a dedicatory Letter to the Queen. 
Edinburgh. 1856. 

GRIERSON, REV. ALEXANDER, A.M., Free Church, Irongray. 

Sermons. Edinburgh. N.D. [c. 1832.] Sm. 8vo. pp. viii., 265. 



Parish of Glencairn. In "The Statistical Account," 1792, II. 


The Bow Butts, near Jarborough Castle, Glencairn. p. 150. 
In " The Antiquities of Scotland," I., 1789. 

HATELY, T. L., Precentor. Free High Church, Edinburgh, d. 1867. 

Tune, name bestowed in honour of Dr Gordon. 

HEWISON, J. KING, D.D., F.S.A.(Scot). 

The Vale of Cairn in Story and Song. In " The Gallodivian," 
Vol. VII., 158. 


A short memoir of Elizabeth Faulds Hislop, and other 
remarks, designed chiefly for the benefit of the young of 
Mineyhive. Beith. 1841. 

HUNTER, WALTER, Skinner in Moniaive. 

A few remarks assaying to prove the existence of the Supreme 
Deity, from his works and revelation. Dumfries: Printed 
by D. Halliday. 1849. 

HYSLOP, JOHN, " The Postman Poet." 

The Dream of a Masque: And other Poems. Kilmarnock. 

Memorial Volume of John Hyslop, the postman poet. Kil- 
marnock. 1895. 


Reminiscences of Missionary Life and Work in the New 

Hebrides. Edinburgh. 1887. 
Bible Illustrations from the New Hebrides. Edinburgh. 

A Translation of the Scriptures into Aneityumese. Published 

by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

KIDD, REV. THOMAS, M.A., Moniaive. 

" The Covenanters," Dr King Hewison. (An appreciation.) 
In " The Gallovidian," Vol. X. 

LAURIE, REV. SIR EMILIUS, Bart., B.D., of Maxwelton. 

Nineveh, the Discoveries of Layard. [Lecture.] 1853. 

An Evangelic Ministry the want of the Times. [Sermon] 

delivered on the occasion of the appointment of Dr Tait as 

Bishop of London. 1858. 


LAURIE, REV. SIB EMILIUS, Bart., B.D., of Maxwelton (contd.). 

A Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. 
London. 1869. xxxii., 416. 

On the Epistle of Clement of Rome. [Two Lectures, 1872.] 

Thorough. London. 1878. ix., 378. 

Deep unto Deep. London. 1880. viii., 384. 

Speeches delivered in the Public Hall, Moniaive, 26th Decem- 
ber, 1889, and 31st January, 1890, on the Local Government 
(Scotland) Act. Dumfries, pp. 16. 

In Memoriam, " For ever with the Lord." Dumfries. 1897. 
pp. 8. 

Sermons on deaths of Col. Sir G. G. Walker, K.C.B., and 
Rev. J. Morland Rice, B.D. 

The Home of Annie Laurie. In Trans. D. and G. N. H. and 
A. Soc. 1894-95. 

Gleanings from Family Records. Ibid. 1898-99. 

On the Election of Ministers in the Church of Scotland. 
Dumfries. 1899. 

LAUIUE, MARGARET, Daughter of Sir Robert of Maxwelton. 

Manuscript. Letter dated Dumfries, September 10th, 1812, 
addressed to " Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, Esq., Hoddom 
Castle," as to origin of the song " Maxwelton banka are 
bonnie." pp. 2, 4| by 3J. In possession of Mr William 
Macmath, Edinburgh. 

M'CALL, REV. WILLIAM, of Caitloch. 

Two Memorial Discourses. Edinburgh : Printed for private 
circulation. 1868. 


Blackface Sheep. In " The Standard Cyclopedia of Modern 
Agriculture and Rural Economy." 12 vols. London. 

M'TTTRK, ROBERT, of Hastings Hall. 

Prize Essays and Transactions of the Highland and Agricul- 
tural Society of Scotland: Vol. XI., On the Extirpation of 
Ferns from Pasture Lands where the Plough cannot be used. 
pp. 371-376. 1843, On Protection for Sheep. pp. 45-50. 
1844, On the mode in which Lime operates in rendering the 
soil better adapted for the Germination and growth of par- 
ticular plants, pp. 127-134. (Silver Medal.) Vol. XIV., 
On the Nature and Growth of Wool. pp. 651-663. (Gold 
Medal.) On Supplying Sheep with Food and Shelter, pp. 
631-651. (Gold Medal.) 1846, On the Cultivation of the 
Red Clover, pp. 385-400. (Gold Medal.) 



The Glencairn Peerage. In " Reports of Claims preferred to 
the House of Lords in the cases of the . . . and Glen- 
cairn Peerages." Edinburgh. 1840. 


Ruth Farmer, a story. London. 1896. 
Scene laid in Glencairn. 


Place-names of the Cairn Valley. In Trans. D. and G. N. H. 

and A. Soc. 1899-1900. 
Fauna of Glencairn. op. cit. 1901-2, 1905-6, 1906-7. 


Laws and Regulations of the Minnyhive Friendly Society. 
Instituted, May 3rd, 1805, as amended 3rd November, 1815. 
Dumfries: "Dumfries and Galloway Courier" Office. C. 
Munro & Co. 1816. 


The Parish of Glencairn. Glasgow. 1876. pp. 79. 

Originally appeared in " Dumfries and Galloway Courier 
and Herald," June-August, 1874. 

NICOL, WILLIAM, of Laggan. 

Dear Christless Bobbie, what is become of thee? Edinburgh, 

10th February, 1793. In "Works of Robert Burns," ed. 

W. Scott Douglas. VI., 54. 
See also Burns, Robert. 
PARK, REV. JOHN, D.D., Glencairn. 
Lectures and Sermons. 1865. 
Songs composed and in part written by the late Rev. John 

Park, D.D., St. Andrews, with introductory notice by 

Principal Shairp, LL.D., St. Andrews. Leeds. 1876. pp. 

viii., 382. 


Carlyle at Craigenputtock. In " Good Words." 1882. 
Articles in " Scottish Art Review," signed " Anonymous." 


Nithsdale. [Letterpress and Illustrations.] 1893. 
PHILIP, REV. ROBERT G., M.A., Glencairn. 

Articles: Parousia; Praise; Prayer; Righteousness, Worship. 
In " The Temple Dictionary of the Bible." Dent & Co. 
London. 1910. 


[POLLOCK, REV. JOHN, Glencairn.] 

An Answer to the first part of Humble Pleadings, or a 
Vindication of the Church of Scotland from the Unjust 
Aspersions of Mr Hepburn and his Party. Submitted to 
the Judgment of all Impartial and Unprejudiced People, 
especially of these in the Shires of Nithsdale, Air, and 
Clidsdale, with the Stuartries of Annandale and Kirkcud- 
bright. By a Well-wisher of the Good-old-way. [Texts and 
motto.] Drumfries: Printed by Robert Rae at his Printing- 
House in the Kirk-gate. 1717. 4to. Epistle, pp. viii., 

RAE, REV. PETER, Kirkbride and (later) Kirkconnel. 

MS. A Natural and Geneological History of the Shire of 

Circa 1710-1747. An incomplete MS. in Rae's hand in the 
possession of the Rev. Dr J. King Hewison, Rothesay, 
includes historical and descriptive accounts of the parishes 
of Kirkbride, Durisdeer, Morton, Penpont, Keir, Close- 
burn, and Glencairn, with notices of the principal families. 


Apologetical Declaration published at Sanquhar, June 22, 

Printed in " An Informatory Vindication " and ascribed, 
in part at least, to Renwick. 

The Testimony of some Persecuted Presbyterian Ministers of 
the Gospel. Given in to the Ministers at Edinburgh by 
Mr James Renwick upon the 17 Januarii, 1B88. [Texts.] 
Printed in the year 1688. 4to. pp. 36. 

Antipas, or the Dying Testimony of Mr James Renwick, 
minister of the Gospel, who suffered at the Grass Market 
of Edinburgh, February 17, 1688. [Edinburgh, 1688.] Sm. 
4to. pp. 8. 

September, 1687. Some Notes or Heads of a Preface and 
Sermon at Lintock-steps in the parish of Stenous in Clydes- 
dale, by that Great Man of God and now glorified Martyr, 
Mr James Renwick. 4to. pp. 16. 7J by 5J. 

Mr James Renwick. January 22, 1688. Some Notes or 
Heads of a Sermon preached by that great and bright 
shining Gospel-Star and now Glorified Martyr. pp. 15. 
7' by 51. 

Mr James Renwick. A Sermon preached by that Eminent 
Godly and Faithfull Servant of Jesus Christ and Minister 
of the Gospel. Isaiah 8, 17. pp. 8. 7 by 5-f- . 

The Saint's Duty in Evil Times. In two Sermons. Glasgow. 
1779. 24pp. 
Probably published as early as 1716. 


RENWIOK, REV. JAMES, M.A. (contd.). 

[The] Church's Choice. A Sermon on Canticles, Ch. 1, 5, 7. 

Printed in the year 1705. 55 pp. 7 by oi. 
An Informatory Vindication of a poor, wasted, misrepresented 
Remnant of the Suffering, Anti-Popish, Anti-Prelatick, 
Anti-Erastian, Anti-Sectarian, true Presbyterian Church 
of Christ in Scotland, united together in a general corre- 
spondence. By way of Reply to various Accusations in 
Letters, Informations, and Conferences given forth against 
them. 1707. 12mo. pp. 278. 

A Confutation of a Scandalous Pamphlet, intituled A 
Manifesto, or the Standard of the Church of Scotland. 
. By the United Societies. . . . To which is 
annexed A Pertinent Letter of Mr James Renwick's to Mr 
Langlans. . . . Printed in the year 1724. 12mo. 
pp. 48. 

A Choice Collection of very valuable Prefaces, Lectures, and 
Sermons, preached upon the Mountains and Muirs, etc., of 
Scotland, in the hottest time of the late Persecution. In 
Two Volumes. By that faithful Minister and Martyr of 
Jesus Christ, the Reverend Mr James Renwick. Glasgow. 
Vol. I., 1748. Vol. II., 1751. Sm. 8vo. [Often reprinted 
with additions.] 

In an edition of the Sermons published at Glasgow in 
1776 we find the following names among the subscribers: 
John Smith younger of Glen j an, Samuel Gries (Grier?) 
in Miniehive. Also the following, ' given in by James 
Fisher, Merchant in Minnyhive: 

James Maxwell. Thomas Drummond. 

William Maxwell. Robert Hogg. 

James Muirhead. Nathaniel Davidson. 

Robert Muirhead. Alexander Ferguson. 

John Wallace. William Cotts. 

James M'Queen. William Bom'tin. 

A Collection of Letters, consisting of Ninety-three, Sixty-one 

of which wrote by the Rev. Mr James Renwick . 

From the years 1663 to 1689 inclusive. (Edited by Rev. 

John Macmillan of Pentland.) Edinburgh. . . . 1764. 

12mo. pp. xii., 437. 

Subscribers' Names. . . Glencairn Parish Walter 
Clark, merchant in Minniehive ; John Cunningham, 
farmer, Barbowie ; Samuel Grierson, taylor in Minnie- 
hive ; James Grierson, taylor there ; Thomas Gracie, dyker 
there ; William M'Whir there ; Murdoch Murphie, inn- 
keeper there ; Elizabeth Smith, in Glenf an. 


RBNWICK, REV. JAMES, M.A. (contd.). 

Proclamations by the Privy Council: 20th September, 1684. 
Against Mr James Renwick. Edinburgh, Heir of Andrew 
Anderson, single sheet. 

9th December, 1686. Offering a reward. . . . [for] the 
person of Mr James Renwick. Edinburgh, Heir of Andrew 
Anderson, single sheet. 

18th October, 1687. Against field conventicles . . . reward 
for apprehending James Renwick. Edinburgh, Heir of 
Andrew Anderson, single sheet. 

An Elegie upon the Death of that Famous and Faithful 
Minister and Martyr, Mr James Renwick. Composed im- 
mediately after his Execution at Edinburgh, 17th Feb., 
1688. [Text Rev. 2, 13. Figure of an angel sitting, with 
a crown in each hand.] Printed in the year 1688. Sm. 4to. 
Six leaves. Title within black border. Two anagrams and 
an acrostick on last page. 

Vertoog van het quaad der toelating, vergunt door den Koning 
van Engeland ; en der Addressen daar over gedaan aan 
hem ; en de noodsakelikheyd om't Evangelium voortaan in 
de velden te prediken. Voorgestelt door eenige vervolchde 
Schotse Predicanten, en gepresenteert aen de Predicanten 
tot Edenburch . . . door Mr J. Renwick. [Translated 
from the English, Amsterdam?] 1688. 4to. 

Apparently a representation on Renwick' a side. 

[LiN, THOMAS, Junior.] 

The Friendly Conference, or a Discourse between the 
Country man and his Nephew. . . Wherein . . The 
manifold difference between Mr M'Millan and Mr J. 
Renwick . . is clearly illustrated. Edinburgh. 1711. 


The Life and Death of . . Mr James Renwick . . . 
by Mr Alexander Shields. 1724. 

The Life of James Renwick. . . . Dumfries. Printed for 
the Booksellers, pp. 24. 

A Chap-book, Reprinted from Howie's " Scots Worthies." 
1775. Issued after 1827. 


The Life of James Renwick, the last of the Scottish Martyrs. 
. . Edinburgh. 1833. 12mo. 


HENWICK, REV. JAMES, M.A. (contd.). 
SIMPSON, REV. ROBERT, D.D., Sanquhar. 

Life of the Rev. James Renwick. Edinburgh. 1843. 
pp. viii., 220. 12mo. [First edition. Anonymous. Edin- 
burgh. 1833. 12mo. pp. 180.] 

James Renwick. In "Scottish Reformers and Martyrs." 1860. 
ANDERSON, REV. WILLIAM, A.M., Loanhead, Edinburgh. 
The Voice of Renwick. . . A Sermon preached [at 
Moniaive] on the bi-centenary of his birth. London. 
1862. pp. 47. 


Spiritual Support and Consolation in Difficult Times: The 
Letters of the Rev. James Renwick. . . With an Intro- 
duction . . by Thomas Houston, D.D. Paisley. 1865. 
iv., 9-290. 


Passages in the Lives of Helen Alexander and James Currie. 
Printed for family use. 1869. By Charles U. Aitchison, 
Her Majesty's Chief Commissioner in British Burmah, a 

Helen Alexander says that she was " married in the year 
1687, November 30th, by the worthy Mr James Renwick. 
When Mr Renwick was executed I went and saw him in 
prison ; and I said to him : ' Ye will get the white robes, 1 
and he said, ' and palms in my hands.! And when he was 
execute I went into the Grey-friars yard, and I took him 
in my arms till his clothes were taken off, and I helped 
to wind him before he was put in the coffin." 


Lays of the Covenanters. Edinburgh. 1880. Renwick in the 
Cottage of John Brown of Priesthill, November, 1683. (A 
sketch.) p. 18. Renwick's Visit to the Death-bed of Peden, 
February, 1686. p. 200. 


Life and Times of Rev. A. Peden and James Renwick. Glasgow. 
[1881.] 8vo. 

CARSLAW, REV. WILLIAM H., D.D., Helensburgh. 

The Life and Times of James Renwick. . . . Edinburgh. 
1893. 8vo. 

Heroes of the Covenant James Renwick. [With illustra- 
tions from photographs by the Rev. Thomas Kidd, M.A., 
Moniaive.] Paisley. 1900. pp. 111. 


RENWICK, REV. JAMES, M.A. (contd.). 
Heart Histories. 

Has interesting references to scenes and incidents in the 
life of James Benwick. 

ALLAN, ROBERT, of Kilbarchan. 

The Covenanter's Lament: A Song of the Covenant. In " The 
Book of Scottish Song," edited by Alexander Whitelaw. 
p. 109. 

Contains the line: " There's nae Renwick now, lassie." 

RIDDEL, ROBERT, of Glenriddel. 

An Account of the Ancient Lordship of Galloway. 4to. 1787. 
Collection of Music. 1787. Price, 4s. 

A. J. Wighton Coll, Dundee Public Library. 
Waly, Waly, A Favourite Old Scots Song, with much 
Approved of Alterations by Robert Riddell, Esq. of Glen- 
riddell. Price, 6d. [Words and Music.] N.D., 4to., pp. 2. 
Dear Bard, to ride this day is vain. In " Works of Robert 
Burns," ed. W. Scott Douglas, 1877. II., 199. 

ARCH^EOLOGIA : Society of Antiquaries of London. 

1789, Vol. IX., An Account of the Ancient Lordship of Gallo- 
way, from the earliest period to the year 1455, when it was 
annexed to the Crown of Scotland, p. 49. Remarks on 
the title Thane and Abthane. p. 329. (See also " Archse- 
ologia Scotica," I., 185, 1792.) 

1792, Vol. X., Account of the Ancient Modes of Fortification 
in Scotland, p. 99. Observations on Vitrified Fortifica- 
tions in Galloway, p. 147. Various Pieces of Antiquity. 
p. 478. 

1794, Vol. XI., Some Account of a Symbol of Ancient Investi- 
ture in Scotland, p. 45. Account of a Brass Vessel found 
near Dumfries, in Scotland, 1790. p. 105. Notices of 
Fonts in Scotland, p. 106. 

Legendary Fragments : The Bedesman on Nidsyde ; Ye mort 
o' Lauch. [Illustration on title by Captain Grose.] 
London. 1790. 4to. pp. 16. 

A Dissertation upon the Ancient Carved Stone Monuments in 
Scotland, with a particular Account of one in Dumfries- 
shire, by Robert Riddell of Glenriddell, Esq. [With plate, 
after Grose, of ancient obelisk. . . . upon the banks of 
the Nith, near Thornhill, in Nithsdale.] In " The Memoirs 
of the Lit. and Phil. Society of Manchester." IV., 131. 


EIDDEL, ROBEHT, of Glenriddel (contd.). 

An Antiquity cut in Ivory. In " The Gentleman's Magazine," 
November, 1792. LXIL, 981. 

A Collection of Scotch, Galwegian, and Border Tunes. . . . 
Price, 7s. Edinburgh. 1794. 

A. J. Wighton Coll, Dundee Public Library, several 
Pieces by R. R. 

Notes on Scottish Song by Robert Burns . . . with addi- 
tions by R. R. and others, ed. by J. C. Dick. 8vo. Lon- 
don. 1908. 

MS. A Collection of Scottish Antiquities selected by R. R. 
In at least eleven volumes whereof, II. -IV., VI. -IX., and 
XI., ranging from 1786 to 1791, are in the Library of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Copiously illustrated 
by original drawings and prints, some by and after Cap- 
tain Grose and Alexander Reid. Vol. VII., includes " A 
Tour in Nithsdale, 1787," by R. R., in three parts, with an 
appendix; " An Excursion by Doctor Clapperton, M.D., to 
Lough Urr, 1787; also " An Old Scottish Ballad called The 
Bedesman on Nidsyde." Vol. VIII. contains " A Journal 
of a Tour in Scotland in 1789, made by Captain Grose and 
Captain Riddell; and in Vol. XI. is " A Collection of Old 
Scottish Ballads " generally known as Glenriddell's Ballad 
MS. Folio. 

MS. The Antiquities and Topography of Nithsdale by Robert 
Riddell. [With drawings of views, buildings, and antiqui- 
ties.] Folio. 

In the Library of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 

MS. [Ten Letters addressed to George Paton, Edinburgh, 
1787 and after. Paton's Letters in Advocate's Library.] 

MS. The Statistical Account of Scotland, 1791-1799. With 
MS. notes by R. R. Volume II. missing. 

In the possession of H. S. Gladstone, Esq. of Capenoch. 


Some Account of the Glenriddell MSS. of Burns's Poems, 
with several Poems never before published. (Printed for 
private circulation.) Liverpool. 1874. Sm. 4to. 


Notice of Robert Riddell of Glenriddell, Esq., and of some of 
his manuscripts and books. In " Proc. of the Soc. of Ant. of 
Scotland." 1868. Vol. VI., p. 451. 


RIDDEL, ROBERT, of Glenriddel (contd.). 

History of the Ancient Ryedales and their descendants in 
Normandy, Great Britain, Ireland, and America, 860 to 
1864, comprising the Genealogy and Biography of the 
Families of Riddell, Riddle, Ridlon, Ridley, etc. Manchester. 
N.H. 1884. 


Moniaive. In " A Country Schoolmaster, James Shaw." ed. 
by Robert Wallace. Edinburgh. 1899. p. 37. 


A Contrast in Pre-Historic Forts near Dunscore. In " Trans. 
D. and G. N. H. and A. Soc." 1901. 


Borland Hall. Glasgow and London. 1874. pp. 252. 
A poem written in Glencairn and full of local colour. 

SMITH, WILLIAM, Banker, Moniaive. 

Notes of a Short American Tour. Dumfries. 1873. pp. 82. 
TELFER, REV. JOHN, Glencairn Free Church. 

Your Own Salvation, Philip 11, 12. pp. 16. 4* by 3*. 
The Coming Kingdom of God. London, pp. x., 134. N.D. 

Brief Memorials of the Rev. Alexander Todd, Missionary of 
the Free Church, Madras, and latterly minister of the 
Presbyterian Church, Hampden, New Zealand. For private 
circulation. Edinburgh. 1888. pp. 188. 


Derwentwater : Or the Adherants of King James. Edinburgh. 

An Appendix contains genealogical notices of the Corsons 
of Dalwhat, the Cunninghams, Smiths, Barbours, 
M'Millans, M'Gachens, and Crichtons. 

WILSON, REV. MR [J.], of Tynron. 

Appendix, No. VII. [Answers to queries.] In (l General View 
of Agriculture in the County of Dumfries," by Dr Singer, 
1812. p. 335. 

WILSON, J. T., M.B.(Edin.), Professor of Anatomy, University of 


Innervation of Axillary Muscles in Man, 1888 and 1889; 
Variation in Nerve-Supply, Abnormal Distribution of 
Nerve, 1889. Rep. from the Jour, of Anat. and Physio. 
Series of Varieties in Human Anatomy. 1892, 


WILSON, J. T., M.B.(Edin.) (contd.). 

On the Closure of the Central Canal of the Spinal Cord in 

the Foetal Lamb. 1892. 
On the Myology of Notoryctes Typhlops, with comparative 

notes. [Numerous plates.] pp. 74. 1893. 
Observations upon the Development and Succession of the 

Teeth in Perameles, together with a Contribution to the 

Discussion of the Homologies of the Teeth in Marsupial 

Animals. Rep. from The Quart. Jour, of Micros. Sci. 1896. 
Observations on Ornithorhynchus. Proc. of the Linn. Soc. of 

N. S. W. 1894. 
Notes on the Innervation of the Musculus Sternalis. Rep. 

from the Interna. Med. Jour, of Australasia. 1897. 
Presidential Addresses, 1898 and 1899. On the Skeleton of 

the Snout ... of the Mammary Foetus of Monotremes. 

1900 and 1902. From the Proc. of the Lin. Soc. of N. S. W. 
A new system of obtaining directing-marks in microscopical 

sections for purposes of reconstruction by wax-plate 

modelling. 1900. 
Ideals in Medical Education. Rep. from the Intercol. Med. 

Jour, of Australasia. Melbourne. 1901. pp. 27. 
Observations on the Development of Ornithorhynchus. By J. 

T. Wilson, M.B., and J. P. Hill, D.Sc. From the Proc. 

of the Royal Soc. 1903 and 1907. 
Two cases of fourth molar teeth in the skulls of an Australian 

aboriginal and a New Caledonian. 1905. Anatomy of the 

Calamus Region in the Human Bulb; Fate of the " Taenia 

Clino-Orbitalis " (Gaupp). Parts I. and II. 1906. From 

the Jour, of Anat. and Physiol. 

The Historical Development of the Problem of the Circulation 

of the Blood. 1906. pp. 11. 
Observations on Tooth-Development in Ornithorhynchus. By 

J. T. Wilson and J. P. Hill. Rep. from The Quar. Jour. 

of Micros. Sci. 1907. 



Agriculture, 2-3, 132-5, 137-40, 


Amusements, 144, 172-3. 
Angling, 2. 
Animals, extinct, 11, 18. 

existing, 2 5 179-85. 
Antiquities, 10-1, 18-30. 
Archery, 25-6. 
Area of parish, 1. 
Ayr Street, 53, 117, 158-9. 

Bad brass, 81-2. 
Balmaclellan, 1, 19, 55, 62. 
Basket-making, 136. 
Beggar Raw, 158, 159-60. 
Bennet, William, 116-7, 197-8. 
Bibliography, 197-214. 
Birds, 1, 11, 180-4. 
Birth-feast, 145. 
Black, Rev. William, 5, 157, 

Blackader, Rev. John, 112, 

156, 165. 

Lieut. -Colonel John, 95, 
112-3, 177, 198. 

Adam, at the Village 
Cross, 156-7. 

" Bonnie Annie Laurie," 101, 
106-8, 112, 128, 175. 

marriage, 101, 106. 

will, 108. 

resting-place, 107-8. 

original version of song, 

"Borland Hall," 7, 166. 
Borrowman, Rev. Patrick, 

46, 51-3, 165, 198. 
Boston, Rev. Thomas, 165. 
Boundaries, parish, 1. 
Bow-Butts of Ingleston, 25-6. 
Bowling, Carpet, 173. 
Bowling Green, 173. 
Bridges, 161. 

" Broose, riding for the," 145. 
Brown, Rev. John, 198. 
Brougham, Lord, at Moniaive, 


Bruce, King Robert the, 130-1. 
Buccleuch, Duke of, 47, 158. 
Burgh of Barony, Moniaive as, 

Burns, Robert, connection with 

Glencairn, 127-31. 
- friendly relations with 

Earl of Glencairn, 131. 

local subject for drama, 

quoted, 127, 128, 129, 131, 
143, 144. 

referred to, 75, 101, 114, 
115, 172, 198-9. 

and parish libraries, 80. 

Cairn river, 2, 5-6, 107-8. 
Cairns, 1, 10, 28. 
Caitloch, 4, 64, 65, 103, 162, 

- Cave, 3-4. 
Camden, 7. 
Camps, 10, 22. 

- Castlehill, 23-4. 
Snade, 22-3. 

Candle-making, 136. 
" Carlyle, Jupiter," 81. 

- Thomas, 166. 
Castlefairn, 2, 38, 55, 85-6, 


Cattle, Ayrshire, 137-8. 

- Galloway, 2, 138. 

- Droving of, 134-5. 
Causeway, 158-9. 

Chapel, site of St. Cuthbert's, 


Chapel Street, 158-9. 
Characters, village, 167-8. 
Charles I., 149, 



Charms, use of, 145. 
Charter, Moniaive, 149-52. 

Translation of, 152-5. 
Choral Society, 173. 
Christianity, introduction of, 

Church bell, 47-8. 79-80. 

- collections, 74-6, 81-2. 

discipline, 72, 76-7. 

finance, 37, 40-2, 44, 47, 

Churchyard, Glencairn, 49, 
60-62, 105, 107, 114. 

Tynron, 57-8. 
Claverhouse, 56-7, 101. 
Clergy, Catholic, 40-2. 
Clerk, Alexander, 114-5, 199. 
Climate, 3, 176. 

Cloan, The, 11, 24, 26-7, 43, 

101, 162. 

Clothing, 79, 140, 141-2. 
Clubs, 172-3. 
Coal, 3, 79. 

Cockburn, Lord, visit of, 163-4. 
Common, 160-1. 
Communions, 75, 80, 142. 
Conventicles, 54, 67-69. 
Coopering, 136. 
"Course, The," 160-1. 
Covenanters, 54-71. 

general list of, 63-65. 

Bennoch, James, 59-60. 

Edgar, Robert, 59-62. 

Grierson, Robert, 59-62. 

M'Cubin, Alexander, 64-65, 

M'Ewan, Samuel, 65, 70. 

- M'Michael, Daniel, 65, 70. 

Mitchell, Robert, 59, 62. 

Renwick, James, 62-63, 
65-70, 71. 

- Smith, William, 57-8. 
Cowgate, 158, 160. 
Craigdarroch, 2, 5, 13, 28, 30, 

85-6, 92-5, 96-9, 100-3, 106, 

108, 110, 131, 148. 
Craigengillan Coach, 162-3. 
Crawfordton, 1, 3, 13, 26, 

27-8, 32, 34, 40, 58, 134, 

138, 139. 

Crichton, family of, 110, 
149-50, 153, 155-6. 

Andrew, 112. 

Ninian, 80. 
Cricket Club, 173. 

Cross, Market, 151, 154, 156-7, 

Cuningham, family of, 6, 43, 

103-5, 131, 202. 
Curling Clubs, 172-3. 
Customs, 144-5. 

Dairy farming, 138. 
Dairy, Galloway, 1, 39, 88. 
Rising at, 55. 
Dalwhat, 2, 4, 5-6, 10-1, 23, 32, 

35, 36, 85, 94, 95, 130, 148, 

159, 161, 162, 167. 
Dalziel, John, 122-3. 
Danyelstoun, family of, 103, 


David I., 39-40. 
Deans, Mrs Charlotte, 164-5. 
Disruption, The, of 1843, 51-2, 

116, 119. 

Doon of Shancastle, 27. 
Drainage, 177. 
Dress, 140, 141-2. 
Dressmakers, 142. 
Drinking in Ale-houses, 72. 
Dumfries, 55-6, 64, 90, 95-8, 

149-55, 162-3. 

Dunlop, Rev. Walter, 165. 
Dunreggan, 4, 5, 14, 33, 35, 

40, 52, 148, 158, 160. 
Dunscore, 1, 19, 80, 81, 127, 

134, 135, 163. 

Earls of Glencairn, 6, 43, 

103-5, 131. 
Earthwork, at Birkshaw, 24. 

at Loch Urr, 21. 
Ecclesiastical History 

pre-Reformation, 39-43. 

post-Reformation, 44-82, 


Edinburgh, 63, 68-9, 149, 155. 
Education, 83-91. 



Edward II., 40. 
Embroidery, muslin, 135. 

Fairs, 154, 159. 
Families, notable, 100-11. 
Farming, early, 132-5. 

- modern, 1. 2-3, 137-40. 
Fauna, 179-85. 

Fences, 133. 

Fergussons of Craigdarroch, 

32-3, 74, 92-9, 100-3, 110, 

127-129, 155, 161, 164, 172, 

Fergusson, William, of Cait- 

loch, 64, 103. 

- Robert, 64, 101. 
Ferns, 192-3. 
Festivals, 144, 159. 

Field - preaching. See Con- 

Fines, for Nonconformity, 54, 

- imposed by Kirk-Session, 

"First Book of Discipline," 

Fisher, James, 113-4, 201. 

Flax, cultivation of, 133. 
manufacture of, 133-4. 

Flood, high, 76. 

Flora, 186-93. 

Folklore, 72, 131, 144-5. 

Food, 73, 79, 95, 140, 142, 144. 

Forest, early, 4. 

Forts, 10, 22, 27. 

France, Rev. W., 118, 201-2. 

Free Church of Scotland, Glen- 
cairn, 51-3, 124. 

- School, 52-3, 91. 
Freemason Lodge, 172. 
Fuel, 3, 79, 143-4. 
Funerals, 73, 145. 
Furniture, 141. 

Gaelic, 1, 11. 

Gas, introduced, 169. 

Geology, 3. 

Gibson, family of, 64, 74, 77, 

94, 109-10, 200. 
Glasgow, See of, 39-42. 
Glencairn, Castle of, 6-7. 

Church of, 6, 38-50, 54-5, 
72-82, 83-4, 85-6, 107. 

- Earls of. See Cuningham. 

- name, 1. 

Glens, 2, 4, 5-6, 7-9, 11, 14, 

38-9, 85-6, 148, 161-3, 167. 
Golf Club, 173. 
Gordon, Rev. Robert, D.D., 

115-6, 177, 203. 
Graham, John, of Claverhouse. 


Grains, Road, 160. 
Grierson, Rev. Alex., 119-20, 


Bursary, 88-90. 

Museum, 28-9. 

Rev. William, 3, 46, 139. 

Grose, the antiquary, 25, 156, 

" Harn "(coarse linen) shirts, 

Health, of parish, 3, 169. 
Hearse, 79, 81. 

Heather, limited occurrence 
of, 1. 

Heritors, 77, 83-8, 90. 
High Street. 113, 158-9. 
Hills, 1-2, 7-9, 11-16, 23-4, 27, 

?8, 43, 148-9, 162, 167. 
Hogig, James, 165. 
Horticultural Society, 172. 
Houses, 140, 141, 169, 176-7. 
Husbandry. See Agriculture. 
Hyslop, John, 120-1, 204. 

Industries, past, 132-7. 

- present, 137-40. 
Infirmary, collections for, 76. 
Inglis, Rev. John, 117-8. 
Ingleston, Bow-butts of, 25. 

- martyrs of, 59-60. 
Interest on loans, 78. 



Jackmen, 6. 

James IV., visits Glencairn, 


Jarbruck, Mote of, 25-6. 
Jougs, 157. 

Keir, 1, 94, 110. 

Kettle Entry, 158, 160. 

Kings, 39-40, 43, 71, 75, 92, 
103, 104. 106, 130-1, 
149-50, 152. 

Kirkland, 86, 116, 165. 

Kirk-Session Records, 45, 48, 
72-82, 83, 90, 157-8, 173. 

Kirk Treasurer's Book, 48, 

Knights Templars, in Glen- 
cairn, 17, 40. 

Knitting, 135. 

Knox, John, 83. 

Laurie, family of, 7, 57-8, 64, 
74, 77, 86, 88, 97, 105-6, 
108-9, 172. 204-5. 
Bonnie Annie, 106-8, 112, 
128, 175. 

Language, 10-17. 

Lead, 3. 

Leases, 139. 

Liberality, 74-6, 77-8, 78-9. 

Libraries, 80, 171. 

Lighting, 143, 169. 

Lime, use of, 132-3. 

Lint. See Flax. 

Living, mode of, 140, 141-3, 

Loch Urr, crannog and earth- 
work, 19-22. 

Locomotion, means of, 162-4, 

Market Cross, Moniaive, 151, 
154, 156-7. 

Sanquhar, 68. 
Marriages, 44, 72-3, 76-7, 145. 
Maps, 4-5, 6 (footnote), 12-7, 

. ' I , 

Martyr Stones, 57-63. 

Mazzini, Joseph, quoted, 178. 

Mill Raw, 158-9. 

Minerals, 3. 

Ministers, references to, 23-4, 
25, 44-7, 51-3, 54, 64, 71, 
83, 87, 94-5, 99, 139-40, 
164, 165-6, 170, 198, 
200-10, 212-3. 

Money-lending, 78. 

Moniaive, meaning of name, 

16, 148-9. 
changes in spelling, 157-8. 

- made a Burgh of Barony, 

- in 1790, 156. 

Fairs, 151, 154, 159. 
Monteith, Rev. John, 23-4, 25, 

46-7, 164, 170, 206. 
Moodie, Rev. W., 45, 99. 
Mortcloth, use of, 78. 
Motes, 24-6, 162. 
Mutual Improvement Society, 


Nail-making, 136. 

Names, changes in, 1, 5, 10-17, 

148-9, 157-60. 
Nursing Association, 173. 

Old Age Pensions, 175. 
Organs, Church, 49, 52. 
Outlook, 176-8. 
Owners of land, 5-7, 100-11. 

Mackill, Robert, 52, 124. 
M'Gachen, family of, 6, 94, 

110, 130. 

M'Turk, Robert, 205-6. 
Manses, 50, 51, 52. 

Parish, aspect of, to-day, 1-4, 

7-9, 170-8. 

Parish Council, 170-1. 
Park, Rev. John, D.D., 206. 
Paterson, James, R.S.A., xii., 

166-7, 206. 



Paton, Walter, 121-2. 
Peat, occurrence of, 143. 

cutting of, as a fuel, 

Peden, Rev. Alexander, 68. 
Penpont, 27, 43, 94, 127, 164, 

Presbytery of, 83, 89-90, 
92, 100. 

Dumfries and, United 
Free Church Presbytery 
of, 53. 

People, improved condition of, 


Pigs, rearing of, 138. 
Place-names, 10-17, 157-8. 
Poetry, 7-8, 9, 71, 107, 114, 

115, 120-1, 127, 131, 143, 

144, 166. 

Pollock, Rev. John, 207. 
Pont, Timothy, 4, 12-7. 
Poor, casual, 88. 

- parish, 73, 77-9. 
Popes, 39, 43. 
Population, 4-5, 169-70. 
Post Office, 173-5. 
Poultry, 138-9. 
Prince Charlie, 97-9. 
Progress, social and religious, 

4, 10-1, 18-9, 38-9, 43, 44, 

71, 80, 83-91, 132, 138-40, 

141-7, 149-55, 157, 158-60, 

161-3, 169, 171-8. 
Proverbs and sayings, 135, 

145-7, 160, 167-8. 
Public Buildings, 47, 50, 53, 

Public Park, 173. 

Querns, 29, 30. 

Races, early, 10-11, 149. 
Race-muir, 57, 160-1. 

Rae, Rev. Peter, 3, 27, 92-3, 

Railway, 163, 175-6. 

Rattan Raw, 159. 

Reader, in Glencairn Kirk, 44. 

Reading Room, 171. 

Rebels at the horn, 64, 100, 

Rebellions, 1715 and 1745, 

92-6, 96-9, 101. 
Recreations, 144-5, 172-3. 
Red Deer, 18, 30. 
Reformation, The Scottish, 

43-4, 47, 104. 
Reformers, 43, 104. 
Relics, portable, 28-30, 149. 
Rental of parish, 31-7, 170. 
Renwick, Rev. James, 62-3, 
65-70, 71, 112, 177. 

traces of birthplace, 65, 

parentage, 65-66. 

as a student, 66. 

his resolve to join the 
Covenanters, 66. 

- visit to Holland, 66. 

return to Scotland, 66. 

beginning of ministry, 

declared an outlaw, 67. 

extent and hardships of 
his labours, 67-68. 

affixes Declaration to San- 
quhar Cross, 68. 

attitude to toleration, 68. 

arrest and trial, 69. 

terms of indictment, 69. 

condemnation, 69. 

refusal to recant, 69. 

last words and execution, 


place of burial, 62. 

monument to, 62-63, 177. 

- Bibliography, 207-10. 
Riddell (or Riddel), family of, 

97, 98, 110, 127-9, 211-2. 
Riddles, as a pastime, 144. 
" Riding for the broose," 145. 
Roadways, changes in, 50, 65, 

" Rob Macquechan's Elshon," 




Romans, presence of the, 10, 

22, 23-4, 149. 

Rorison, family of, 110, 155-6. 
Bullion Green, battle of, 55. 

Sabbath-breaking, 72. 
St. Cuthbert, 38-9, 49. 
Scenery, 1-2, 4, 7-9, 148-9, 

163-4, 166, 175. 
School Board, 88-9. 

Schools and Schoolmasters, 

52.-3, 83-8, 90-1. 
Scleners or Schlenders, The, 

16, 65, 158. 
Selgovse, 10. 
Shancastle, Boon of, 27. 
Shaw, James, 115, 212. 
Sheep, 2-3, 137. 
Sibbald MSS., 5, 157. 
Simpson, Rev. Richard, 22, 


Slate quarrying, 136. 
Smith, Rev. Walter C., D.D., 

7-8, 149, 166, 212. 
Societies, 171-2, 173. 
Springs, mineral, 3. 
Statistical Accounts, 7, 19, 84, 

87, 139-40. 

Stenters, The, 158, 160. 
Stone, al Ingleston, 59. 

at " Minnyhive Moss," 57. 

in wall of Free Church, 

in Churchyard wall, 49. 
Streams, 2, 4, 5-8, 18, 22, 50, 

76, 85-6, 107-8, 130, 148-9, 
161, 164. 
Street names, 158-60. 

Temperance Society, 173. 
Tent, Communion, 80. 
Thatching, 136, 169. 
Thornfiill, 50, 163-4, 175. 

Throughgate, The, 158-9. 
Todd, Rev. Alexander, 123-4 


Tokens, Church, 48, 50-1. 
Towers, fortified, 27-8. 
Trees. See Woods. 

List of finest, 194-6. 
Turner, Sir James, 55, 101. 
Tynron, 1, 57-8, 72, 94, 95, 116, 

127, 162, 172. 

United Presbyterian Church, 

50-1, 53, 162. 
Urn, cinerary, 1. 

Vagrancy, 73, 88. 
Valuation of parish, 31-7, 170 
Views, finest, 2, 4, 50, 107-8 

148-9, 163-4, 175, 177. 
Visitors, distinguished, 38-9 

43, 127, 130-1, 163-6. 

Wages, 139-40, 142. 
Walker, Col. Sir George G. 

124-5, 173. 

Water-channelling, 159, 169. 
Waters. See Streams. 
Water supply, 169. 
Waulk Mill, 1, 160. 
Weaving, 136-7, 160. 
Wells, 169. 

"Whistle, The," 101, 127-8. 
" White ground," 1-2. 
Wild Ox, 18. *" 

"Willie brewed a peck o 

maut," 129. 
Witchcraft, 72, 145. 
Woods, 2, 4, 8, 163-4. 
Wordsworth, quoted, 9. 
Worthies, village, 165, 167-8. 

Yew trees, large, 196. 


lllllll III! Illli Hill III'" 'I']' . o * o -1